Make a Donation

Consider making a donation to support SHAKSPER.

Subscribe to Our Feeds

Current Postings RSS

Announcements RSS

Home ::
Announcements
Book Announcement: Shakespeare and Outsiders

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 24.0537  Friday, 29 November 2013

 

From:        Marianne Novy < This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it >

Date:         November 29, 2013 at 10:06:04 AM EST

Subject:    Book Announcement: Shakespeare and Outsiders

 

Amazon has a 30% discount on all books until December 1—so it’s a good time to considering ordering my new book, Shakespeare and Outsiders, in paperback in the Oxford Shakespeare Topics series.

 

Some of Shakespeare’s most memorable characters are treated as outsiders in at least part of their plays-Othello, Shylock, Malvolio, Katherine (the ‘Shrew’), Edmund, Caliban, and many others. Marked as different and regarded with hostility by some in their society, many of these characters have become icons of group identity. While many critics use the term “outsider,” this is the first book to analyse it as a relative identity and not a fixed one, a position that characters move into and out of, to show some characters affirming their places as relative insiders by the way they treat others as more outsiders than they are, and to compare characters who are outsiders not just in terms of race and religion but also in terms of gender, age, poverty, illegitimate birth, psychology, morality, and other issues.

 

Are male characters who love other men outsiders for that reason in Shakespeare? How is the suspicion of women presented differently than suspicion of racial or religious outsiders? How do the speeches in which various outsiders stand up for the rights of their group compare? Can an outsider be admired? How and why do the plays shift sympathy for or against outsiders? How and why do they show similarities between outsiders and insiders? With chapters on Merchant of Venice, Twelfth Night, Othello, King Lear, The Tempest, and women as outsiders and insiders, this book considers such questions with attention both to recent historical research on Shakespeare’s time and to specifics of the language of Shakespeare’s plays and how they work on stage and screen.

 

Reviews on Amazon by Phyllis Rackin, Michael Witmore, and Julie Bowman.

 

Marianne Novy

Professor of English

University of Pittsburgh

 
 
Shakespeare & Watson Web Series at Trip City

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 24.0533  Monday, 25 November 2013

 

From:        Chris Miskiewicz < This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it >

Date:         November 25, 2013 at 8:35:44 AM EST

Subject:    Shakespeare & Watson Web Series at Trip City

 

For Immediate Release: Fictitious Time Traveling Victorian Era Master Detective And Famous Elizabethan Playwright Open A Detective Agency In Williamsburg Brooklyn – The Adventures Of Shakespeare & Watson: Detectives Of Mystery

 

Trip City is proud to announce the launch of Shakespeare & Watson: Detectives of Mystery, a new web series from Chris Miskiewicz and Christopher Piazza.

 

The Adventures of Shakespeare & Watson Detectives of Mystery pairs William Shakespeare and Dr. John Watson as time traveling detectives who are trapped in the present after an accident with their time cane. Sherlock Holmes and Dr. John Watson have traveled to William Shakespeare’s era to solve “The Riddle of a Thousand Faces,” but Professor Moriarty sprang a clever ruse, breaking Sherlock’s “time cane,” causing a “temporal storm” that sends Sherlock and Moriarty to times unknown, and Shakespeare and Watson to the present. Together, the unorthodox partners have formed the premier detective agency in all of north Brooklyn to fight crime while trying to figure out a way to get back to their own eras.

 

The Adventures of Shakespeare & Watson: Detectives of Mystery premiered at Trip City, A Brooklyn-Filtered Literary Arts Salon, created & curated by Dean Haspiel  (Billy Dogma, Emmy Award Winning Artist of HBO's Bored to Death,) Seth Kushner (Leaping Tall Buildings,) Jeffrey Burandt (Americans UK) and writer Chris Miskiewicz (Everywhere, Thomas Alsop.

 

Shakespeare & Watson is a collaboration between Nicky Dog Pictures, PanopticonNYC, and Spygirl Pictures, starring David Blatt as a William Shakespeare, Chris Miskiewicz (Bored to Death/White Collar) as Doctor John Watson, Award-winning British graphic novelist Nick Abadzis as Sherlock Holmes, and rock & roll drumming legend Ozzie Martinez as the loveable Cracky. Directed by Christopher Piazza. Written by Chris Miskiewicz & Christopher Piazza. Edited by Kathleen Green.

 

 Contact @  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Follow Shakespeare & Watson @ Twitter @ShakesWatson and @LordCracky

Facebook @  facebook.com/shakesandwatson

Youtube @ www.youtube.com/ShakespeareandWatson

Funny or Die @ http://www.funnyordie.com/shakespearewatson

www/ShakespeareandWatson.com

 
 
Ralph Cohen Honored by the Folger Shakespeare Library

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 24.0527  Wednesday, 21 November 2013

 

From:        Hardy Cook < This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it >

Date:         November 20, 2013 at 2:38:09 PM EST

Subject:    Ralph Cohen Honored by the Folger Shakespeare Library

 

Ralph Alan Cohen, Director of Mission and Co-Founder of the American Shakespeare Center, has been awarded the 2013 Shakespeare Steward Award, presented annually by the Folger Shakespeare Library in recognition of outstanding contributions to the innovative teaching of Shakespeare in American classrooms.

 

Folger Director Michael Witmore presented Cohen with the award on October 26, 2013 at the closing event of the Blackfriars Conference, the American Shakespeare Center’s biennial gathering of scholarship on early modern drama.  “Ralph has a long been a leader in the community of Shakespeare scholars who see that there is much to learn from the practice of staging Shakespeare’s plays,” noted Witmore. “People think differently about Shakespeare and Renaissance drama because of what Ralph has done.”

 

Peggy O’Brien, the Folger’s Director of Education added, “Ralph is close to magical. All of his gifts—scholar, teacher, director, and entrepreneur—have driven work that has created lively and exciting Shakespeare experiences for hundreds of thousands of students and teachers. And the founding and growth of the American Shakespeare Center besides! It’s an honor for us at the Folger to honor him."

 

Past recipients of the Shakespeare Steward Award include the partnership between the Chicago Shakespeare Theater and Chicago Public Schools; scholars Gail Kern Paster and Jeanne Addison Roberts; the Denver Public Schools Shakespeare Festival; Peggy O’Brien; and the inaugural recipient, Susan Biondo-Hench, a high school English teacher in Carlisle, Pennsylvania who founded a student Shakespeare festival in her community.

 

In 1988, Cohen and Jim Warren formed the Shenandoah Shakespeare Express, a touring theatre company focused on bringing back the energy of early modern theatre by using their staging conditions. 25 years later, the company has been renamed The American Shakespeare Center, and has brought Shakespeare performances to hundreds of American communities and advanced an interest in Shakespeare and his times by building a re-creation of the Blackfriars Theatre and creating an American center for the performance and study of Shakespeare in Staunton, Virginia.

 

Cohen, Co-founder and Director of Mission at the American Shakespeare Center, is Gonder Professor of Shakespeare and Performance and founder of the Master of Letters and Fine Arts program at Mary Baldwin College.  

 

He has directed 30 productions of plays by Shakespeare and his contemporaries, including America’s first professional production of Francis Beaumont’s The Knight of the Burning Pestle. He also directed the first revival of Thomas Middleton’s Your Five Gallants and co-edited the play for Oxford University Press’s Collected Works of Thomas Middleton.

 

He is the author of ShakesFear and How to Cure It: A Handbook for Teaching Shakespeare. He twice edited special teaching issues of Shakespeare Quarterly and has published articles on teaching Shakespeare as well as on Shakespeare, Jonson, and Elizabethan staging. ShakesFear will see its second printing in 2014.

 

He founded the Studies Abroad program at James Madison University, where he won Virginia’s award for outstanding faculty. He has frequently directed summer institutes on Shakespeare and staging sponsored by the National Endowment for the Humanities. In 2001 he established the Blackfriars Conference, a biennial week-long celebration of early modern drama in performance.

 

In 2008 he won the Commonwealth Governor’s Arts Award along with ASC Co-Founder Jim Warren. In 2009 he was the Theo Crosby Fellow at Shakespeare’s Globe in London. He earned his undergraduate degree at Dartmouth College and his doctorate at Duke University and has honorary degrees from St. Lawrence University and Georgetown University. 

 
 
Hamlet: The Undiscovered Country, Second Edition and E-book

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 24.0525  Tuesday, 20 November 2013

 

From:        Steve Roth < This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it >

Date:         November 19, 2013 at 8:33:28 PM EST

Subject:    Hamlet: The Undiscovered Country, Second Edition and E-book

 

Fellow SHAKSPEReans: Many of you have been kind enough to support and help me with my Hamlet book, and I wanted to let you know that it's just been released in a second edition, and (finally) in an e-book edition.

 

It’s not hugely changed, but I have worked in many insights and corrections that have arisen since the first edition, many of them arrived at with your help. (Thanks!)

 

I’m especially pleased with the e-book version, which—because of the book’s many tables and other special text and graphic elements—was a challenging conversion. I think the e-book reading experience may be even better than print (something I rarely say about e-books). This not least because all the laboriously embedded hyperlinks to the play text, and to primary and secondary source materials, are working. 

 

If you’re among those I address above and I haven’t written to you directly offering a copy of the e-book, or if you’d like to consider it for class adoption, please don’t hesitate to drop me a line; I’d love to send you one. 

 

Thanks for listening,

Steve

princehamlet.com

 
 
Performance of King John

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 24.0520  Monday, 18 November 2013

 

From:        Richard Waugaman < This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it >

Date:         November 17, 2013 at 5:13:25 PM EST

Subject:    Performance of King John

 

An excellent production of King John will be performed for one more week near Washington, DC, at the Avant Bard Theater—

 

http://wscavantbard.org/season-2/shakespeares-king-john/

 

King John gave us Robin Hood and the Magna Carta. Find out why. In a fever dream of British royal history, Shakespeare’s most enigmatic king wrestles with covetous heirs, rebellious lords and his own conscience as he struggles to retain the throne–and his own sanity.

 

Directed by Artistic Director Tom Prewitt and featuring Acting Company members Christopher Henley, Cam Magee and Chuck Young.

 

SCHEDULE

 

Previews: October 27 at 2:00 pm, October 29-31 at 7:30 pm

 

Opening Night: Friday, November 1, 2013 at 7:30 pm.

 


Performances: Thursday-Saturday at 7:30 pm; Saturday and Sunday at 2 pm through November 24.

 

All previews and Saturday matinees are Pay What You Can!

 

TICKETS

For tickets, order online or call WSC Avant Bard at 703-418-4808.

 

LOCATION

Theatre on the Run


3700 South Four Mile Run Drive

Arlington, VA 22206

 

Richard Waugaman

http://explore.georgetown.edu/people/waugamar/

 
 
Richard III - Silent Film Screening

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 24.0519  Monday, 18 November 2013

 

From:        Hardy Cook < This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it >

Date:         November 15, 2013 at 5:25:04 PM EST

Subject:    Richard III - Silent Film Screening

 

http://www.yorktheatreroyal.co.uk/shows/richard_iii.php

 

Richard III - Silent film screening

Silent Film Special Event in partnership with The University of York

 

On 27 Nov at 6pm we will be screening a silent film version of Richard III in the main auditorium. The film stars celebrated stage and screen actor Frank Benson as a deliciously dastardly Richard in a precious piece of film and theatre history recorded on the stage of Stratford’s Shakespeare Memorial Theatre in 1911. The film will feature musical accompaniment and, in a performance first, will be voiced live by our cast from the stage production to a commissioned ‘silent cinema actor script’.

 

Script, voice-to-screen direction and introduction: Judith Buchanan

 

Tickets: £5, or £3 students and for those who have a ticket to the theatre production

 

Event Running Time: 45 mins total, including introduction and a short Q&A after the screening

 

With live, original piano accompaniment by John Sweeney

 
 
British Shakespeare Association Fellowships Day and AGM

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 24.0518  Friday, 15 November 2013

 

From:        British Shakespeare Association < This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it >

Date:         November 15, 2013 at 9:42:23 AM EST

Subject:    British Shakespeare Association Fellowships Day and AGM 

 

British Shakespeare Association

 

BSA Fellowships Day Saturday 30 November

 

10.00am to 4.00pm, The Shakespeare Centre, Henley Street, Stratford-upon-Avon.

 

The British Shakespeare Association are conferring upon Professors Terence Hawkes and Stanley Wells the title of Honorary Fellow in recognition of their significant contributions to Shakespeare scholarship. The day starts at 10am and includes reflections on and appreciation of the work and careers of two very different kinds of Shakespeare scholars. Ewan Fernie and Susan Basnett will speak on Terry and Carol Rutter and John Jowett on Stanley. A closing panel discussion will be followed by a sparkling wine reception.

 The day will cost £5.00 per person (no discounts, pay on the door only). 

 

Members of the BSA are invited to remain after the event for the BSA’s Annual General Meeting (from 4.00pm). It would be helpful to have a sense of numbers in advance, so we are inviting people to sign up via e-mail. Please send your name and contact details (including a phone number) to This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it Alternatively, you can just turn up on the day.

 If you wish to join the British Shakespeare Association and attend the AGM, you can sign up to be a member on the website www.britishshakespeare.ws . Memberships cost £25 (£15 concessions), and you can also opt to receive the BSA’s journal Shakespeare at the extremely discounted price of £15.
 

Kind regards,

The British Shakespeare Association

 
 
Herbert-Dickinson NEH Seminar

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 24.0516  Wednesday, 13 November 2013

 

From:        Richard A. Strier < This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it >

Date:         November 12, 2013 at 1:05:39 PM EST

Subject:    Herbert-Dickinson NEH Seminar

 

Dear Folks,

 

I don’t know whether this will be of interest to anyone on this list (or your graduate students), but it might be (two spots of the 16 are available for grad students).

 

I am offering an NEH Summer Seminar for College Teachers this summer (July 7-Aug 8) at the University of Chicago on “George Herbert and Emily Dickinson.”  Anyone interested can e-mail me at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or, better yet, for full information, go to the seminar website:

 

http://lucian.uchicago.edu/blogs/neh2014herbert-dickinson/

 

Best,

Richard Strier

Sulzberger Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus

Editor, Modern Philology

Department of English

University of Chicago

1115 E. 58th St.

Chicago, IL 60637 

 
 
Online Lecture - Hamlet

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 24.0515  Tuesday, 12 November 2013

 

From:        Jake Goldberg < This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it >

Date:         November 11, 2013 at 10:24:48 AM EST

Subject:    Free Online Lecture - Hamlet

 

[Editor’s Note: I post this advertisement with some reservations; nevertheless, it is possible that someone on this list might be interested. –Hardy]

 

LibertasU will be hosting a number of free online lectures over the next few weeks. One will take place on Tuesday, Nov 19th at 8:30 PM Eastern, when Professor John Alvis will give a lecture on Shakespeare’s Hamlet.

 

Professor Alvis is a highly respected and experienced academic and we’re sure that all of the participants will enjoy taking part in the real-time discussion and debate of ideas afforded by our unique online platform.

 

Participation in the lecture is limited. We hope you will pass this message on to your members so that those who would like to participate will have the opportunity to register.

 

More information is available on our website: www.libertasu.com/freelecture3.html

 

Best regards,

Jake Goldberg

 
 
Programs with Adam Gopnik and with Theatre for a New Audience

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 24.0512  Monday, 11 November 2013

 

From:        John F Andrews < This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it >

Date:         November 10, 2013 at 6:35:04 PM EST

Subject:    Programs with Adam Gopnik and with Theatre for a New Audience  

 

A Hearty Tribute to Theatre for a New Audience

 

Thursday, November 21

Program 6:00, Reception 7:15 p.m.

The National Arts Club

15 Gramercy Park, Manhattan

Free, but Reservations Requested

 

Founded in 1979 by Jeffrey Horowitz, and chaired for most of its distinguished history by Theodore C. Rogers, THEATRE FOR A NEW AUDIENCE has earned dozens of honors and provided a congenial setting for directors like Arin Arbus, Julie Taymor, and Darko Tresnjak, and for actors such as Kathleen Chalfant, Mark Rylance, and John Douglas Thompson. It was the first American company to perform one of the playwright’s classics in Stratford-upon-Avon’s Royal Shakespeare Theatre, and its rendering of The Merchant of Venice, with F. Murray Abraham as Shylock, was featured in the RSC’s recent Complete Works Festival. Julie Taymor staged versions of Titus Andronicus and The Tempest at Theatre for a New Audience before she directed those works on film, so it’s altogether fitting that her long-anticipated production of A Midsummer Night’s Dream is now inaugurating the Theatre’s sparkling new POLONSKY SHAKESPEARE CENTER in Brooklyn. Please join us for a celebratory toast to Jeffrey Horowitz and Ted Rogers.   

___________________

 

A Memorable Evening with Adam Gopnik

 

Friday, November 22

Reception 6:00, Program 6:30 p.m.

The English-Speaking Union

144 East 39th Street, Manhattan

Members $10, Others $20

 

Best known, perhaps, for Paris to the Moon, a touching account of the years he and his family spent in the City of Light, Adam Gopnik has also enriched our lives with Americans in Paris, an anthology of New World responses to the French capital, and The Table Comes First: France, Family, and the Meaning of Food, a volume that has been lauded in the Dining section of the New York Times and is now being adapted for the theater.

 

Another of Mr. Gopnik’s recent publications, Angels and Ages: A Short Book about Darwin, Lincoln, and Modern Life, derives from a New Yorker article about the conflicting accounts of Edwin M. Stanton’s famous eulogy as America’s 16th President expired from a wound that had been inflicted a few hours earlier in Ford’s Theatre. According to a stenographer who took notes on that somber occasion, Stanton said “Now he belongs to the angels.” But near the end of the century, in their official biography of Lincoln, John Hay and John Nicolay, his personal secretaries, reported that Stanton said “Now he belongs to the ages.” Both versions echo familiar passages from the President’s favorite writer, and both accord with Shakespearean patterns that many have noted in their comments about Lincoln’s life and untimely death.

 

For this gathering, Mr. Gopnik will join the Guild’s John Andrews, who has published articles about the Lincoln assassination in The Atlantic and the New York Times, for a conversation prompted by the 50th anniversary of another tragedy that took place on a Friday, this time during a sunny autumn afternoon in 1963. The audience will be encouraged to join in reflections about relationships between the two events, and about ways in which both of them illustrate the enduring resonance of titles such as Julius Caesar, Hamlet, and Macbeth.

___________________

 

Welcoming a New Biography of Edwin Booth

 

Thursday, December 19

Program 6:30, Reception 7:45 p.m.

The National Arts Club

15 Gramercy Park, Manhattan

Free, but Reservations Requested

 

A prominent university administrator as well as a scholar who has written the definitive biography of 19th-century actor Joseph Jefferson, an eminent friend and colleague of Edwin Booth, Arthur W. Bloom has now completed what reviewers describe as our most authoritative study of Booth himself. During a discussion that will address a wide range of topics, among them how various members of America’s foremost theatrical family responded to the Civil War and its dramatic conclusion, and how the most distinguished of them then proceeded to put an enduring mark on roles like Brutus and Hamlet and earn renown as “The Prince of Players.” In 1988 Booth purchased a home on Gramercy Park and founded The Players, an institution he modeled after the Garrick Club in London, and it was there that he died in 1893. Copies of Edwin Booth: A Biography and Performance History will be on hand for purchase and inscription.

___________________

 

For more information about these and related offerings, visit www.shakesguild.org. To secure reservations and make credit-card payments, simply reply with a message to This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or call 505-988-9560.

 

If you belong to the English-Speaking Union or the Shakespeare Guild, you qualify to receive a member discount for the November 22 program with Adam Gopnik. Should you wish to reserve through the ESU, you may do so with a message to This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or with a call to 212-818-1200. If space remains available on the day of that event, you may pay at the door.

 
 
An Age of Kings 5 Disc DVD

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 24.0505  Wednesday, 6 November 2013

 

From:        Louise Machin < This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it >

Date:         November 5, 2013 at 12:25:07 PM EST

Subject:    An Age of Kings 5 Disc DVD

 

FOR RELEASE ON DVD DECEMBER 8, 2013

Illuminations presents an exclusive 5-disc DVD of 

 

An Age of Kings 

 

Eight History plays by William Shakespeare

 

Groundbreaking adaptation of Shakespeare’s Histories available for the first time in 50 years

 

960 minutes including extras

£34.99 including VAT

 

An Age of Kings is the BBC’s compelling 15-part series from 1960 of William Shakespeare’s great national pageant of eight History plays. Watched by over three million viewers, it is the most ambitious Shakespeare project ever filmed for television.

 

Hailed by the Guardian as ‘ambitious ... exciting ... a striking example of the creative use of television’, it was a powerful demonstration of the BBC’s unique strengths and abilities in a time when Britain’s public service broadcaster was not principally in the hunt for ratings.

 

Planned as the inaugural production in the newly-built BBC TV Centre, An Age of Kings was later broadcast live on Thursday evenings every fortnight from Riverside Studios in Hammersmith as the series wasn’t ready in time for the opening. 

 

For more than 50 years, this TV landmark has been entirely unavailable in Britain. Yet its drama of power politics, betrayals, deceptions and deadly rivalries is as alive as ever. So too is the beauty of some of Shakespeare’s greatest poetry and prose.  

 

An Age of Kings features outstanding actors, including Robert Hardy, Eileen Atkins, Judi Dench, and Sean Connery, at the beginning of their highly successful careers. More than five decades after it was first seen, An Age of Kings is a vivid and vibrant drama, with an unparalleled clarity and immediacy, sense of scale and poetic depth.

 

With 600 speaking parts and 30 weeks of rehearsal before filming, each episode cost £4000. The series was shot on only four cameras with a cyclorama used for the battle scenes and lots of smoke. 

 

DVD extras: The Making of An Age of Kings features Tony Garnett (Cathy Come Home, Days of Hope) interviewed at Riverside Studios. Garnett recalls his experiences on this groundbreaking series and the challenges of making one of the most ambitious Shakespeare projects ever filmed.  

 

Also included in the 5 disc DVD pack is a 24-page booklet giving background information and critical writing about the production.

 

Barcode: 5060291820072

Catalogue number: AOK166

 

PRESS RESOURCES:

 

An Age of Kings taster reel (20 mins)

http://vimeo.com/illuminationsmedia/aaok

 

The Making of An Age of Kings (14 mins, 15 secs)

http://vimeo.com/illuminationsmedia/aaok

 

YouTube and DVD trailer with DVD advert (3 mins)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XSlbHAa0bHk&feature=youtu.be

 

An Age of Kings press pack download (includes 2d and 3d pack shots, 12 stills and poster)

http://www.hightail.com/download/OGhmeEVjNDJUWURtcXRVag

 

Illuminations is a leading producer and publisher of cultural media with a distinguished history of making programmes about the arts, digital culture, and ideas. Recent productions include Rupert Goold’s Macbeth starring Patrick Stewart, and RSC director Greg Doran’s Julius Caesar. More performance DVDs can be found online at www.illuminationsmedia.co.uk

 

More information and review copies, contact Louise Machin on 020 7288 8409/07958 225186 or  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

 

Louise Machin

Illuminations

Essential media about the arts

A: 19-20 Rheidol Mews, London N1 8NU

T: +44 20 7288 8400 F: +44 20 7288 8488

W: www.illuminationsmedia.co.uk

 
 
<< Start < Prev 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Next > End >>

Page 7 of 40

©2011 Hardy Cook. All rights reserved.