Mac Collation Program

Shakespeare Electronic Conference, Vol. 2, No. 119. Thursday, 25 Apr 1991.
	[Peter Robinson has asked me to circulate this announcement
	to members of SHAKSPER.  Those of you using Macintoshes
	should be particularly interested.  My apologies, as always,
	to those of you who may have already seen this elsewhere. -- k.s.]
Date: 		Thu, 25 Apr 1991 10:57:00 -0400
From: 		Peter Robinson This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Subject:  	Collate announcement
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Version 1.0 of Collate -- a new program for the collation of large
textual traditions -- is now available.
About Collate
Collate aims to help scholars in the preparation of a critical edition
based on many sources. It can collate simultaneously up to a hundred
texts. It  can deal with richly marked-up texts (with special
treatment for editorial comments embedded in the text, location
markers, editorial expansions and separate collation of punctuation). It
provides powerful facilities to allow the scholar to tailor the collation
and it can output in many different formats.
Collate works interactively with the collation being written to a
window as the scholar watches. The scholar may intervene  at any point
to alter the collation, using either of the tools Set Variant or
Regularise. Set Variant allows the scholar to over-rule the collation
offered by Collate and impose his own collation, even writing a variant
that does not appear in the sources into the collation. Regularise
enables the scholar to intervene to regularise any word or phrase in any
source at any point. The regularisation can be set for a particular word
at every point in every source, or for that word only at that place in that
source, or various other combinations. Collate will record all variants
set and every regularisation made and remember them next time it runs.
The scholar can adjust the collation in other ways, switching the base
text, suppressing agreements with the base text and collating
punctuation tokens separately.
The collation may be output in various critical apparatus forms
(including several  formats recommended by the Text Encoding
Initiative), or scholars may dictate their own format. Through an
interface to the EDMAC macros, developed by John Lavagnino of
Brandeis University and Dominik Wujastyk of the Wellcome Institute
for the production of complex critical editions with the typesetting
language TeX, editions with up to five levels of apparatus can be created
direct from the output of Collate. The EDMAC macros and an
implementation of TeX (OzTeX) are provided with the program.
Automatic generation of hypertext electronic editions from the output is
also possible.
Texts Collate can Process
The length of texts Collate can process is limited only by the storage
capacity of the computer. The only requirement is that the text be
divided into blocks containing no more than 32768 words each. Collate
works on both prose and verse and has been tested successfully on texts
in many languages (including Malay, Sanskrit, Latin, Middle English
and Old Norse).
A set of Guidelines for Transcription, provided with the program,
explains the format transcription files should have so that they can be
processed by Collate. The transcription files must be plain ASCII files
and can be prepared on any computer. A simple word-processor,
Transcribe, is also provided with Collate: this includes various functions
specially designed to help transcription.
The History of Collate
Collate has been developed as part of the Computers and Manuscripts
Project, funded for three years from 1st September 1989 by the
Leverhulme Trust at the Oxford University Computing Service with
support from Apple Computer. Collate has been written by the Research
Officer for the Project, Peter Robinson (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.).
The Project Director is Susan Hockey.
Program Availability and Requirements
Collate 1.0 runs only on Macintosh computers (Classic or higher) and
requires one megabyte of memory to operate. A hard disc is
recommended. It can be ordered from:
The Computers and Manuscripts Project
Oxford University Computing Service
13 Banbury Road
Oxford OX2 6NN
(Phone: 0865 273200; fax 0865 273275;
email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.).
The program costs 2#0 pounds UK, 40 dollars US. Cheques should be made
payable to the Oxford University Computing Service; cheques in pounds
must be drawn on a British bank.
A demonstration disc of the program is available, free, from the above
Documentation, sample files, Transcribe (version 1.1) and the OzTeX
implementation of TeX for the Macintosh, together with the EDMAC
macros, are provided with the program.

"Forbidden Planet" On-Stage

Shakespeare Electronic Conference, Vol. 2, No. 118. Wednesday, 24 Apr 1991.
Date:    	Wed, 24 Apr 1991 14:25:45 EDT
From: 		Jay Funston <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Subject: 2.0115  Happy Birthday Shakespeare; Rose Theatre
Comment: 	RE: SHK 2.0115  Happy Birthday Shakespeare; Rose Theatre
"Forbidden Planet" is still listed as current, and I've ordered tickets
for mid May, when I hope to be in London.
How's the Jubilee Hotel?
						Jay Funston

Renaissance Knowledge Base Update

Shakespeare Electronic Conference, Vol. 2, No. 116. Tuesday, 23 Apr 1991.
	[I am once again endebted to Willard McCarty's FICINO
	discussion group for this posting, which should be of
	interest to many SHAKSPEReans.  -- k.s.]
From: 		Ian Lancashire  <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date: 		Mon, 22 Apr 91 10:01:29 EDT
Subject: 	Renaissance Knowledge Base -- Future Plans
     At the Tempe ACH/ALLC conference, on March 18, Roy Flannagan,
Ian Lancashire and Mike Neuman chaired an open meeting of those
interested in the Renaissance Knowledge Base.  Attending the
meeting by invitation were two representatives of Chadwyck-Healey,
a publisher based in  Cambridge, England, planning a collection of
4500 texts of British poetry marked up according to the principles
of the TEI and dating from about 900 to about 1900, to be selected
from entries in the *Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature*
and issued on CD-ROM. Mark Rooks of InteLex Corporation also joined
us: he is a publisher of electronic philosophical texts and has
plans to issue a multilingual set of texts of Descartes and
Spinoza. Patricia Murphy, a private scholar from Pal Alto,
represented a group of  individuals who would like to develop OCR
technology  capable of scanning 16th- and 17th-century books
through analysis of type forms, so that her group, after gaining
substantial backing, might scan and publish the entire *Short-title
Catalogue*. The meeting attracted a small audience, including Steve
Siebert of Dragonfly Software.
     Flannagan asked the group in attendance the open-ended
question where the RKB might go, considering that Chadwyck-Healey
has jumped into the picture with such an ambitious project and
preempted an enormous chunk of the poetry.  The consensus was that
if C-H could publish the English Poetry Full-Text Database out in
the next several years, even at a fairly high price, one of the
largest goals of the RKB planning group would have been
accomplished. Some of the same concerns as had been expressed
in the first organizational meeting of the RKB in Toronto
were again brought up, as with the question "Who is going to decide
when a primary text is not the best and should be replaced by a
modern scholarly edition?" C-H representatives answered that at
least the old-spelling texts in their proposed CD-ROM could be the
basis for comparative textual research, even if they were not
critical texts.  The C-H project will also be a major proving
grounds for TEI encoding: to that end Lou Burnard and Michael
Sperberg-McQueen have been retained to advise C-H about encoding.
Mark Rooks discussed the possibilities for accurate scanning (at
least of 19th- and 20th- century printed books) and manual
text-entry, citing very low error rates with modern OCR scanning,
such as that produced by Caere's *OmniPage* software.
     Lancashire suggested that C-H might contact members of the
RKB group who had already entered many texts and cited the Otago
group in particular as having already entered all English poetry
1500-1550. He also explained that a RKB was conceptually different
from a textbase because it had two additional corpora: period
dictionaries and reference works such as *The Dictionary of
National Biography* and period bibliographies such as *STC* and
*Wing*. These should be seen, as David Bank had argued, as
databases that could act as front-ends for searching the textbase.
Lancashire recommended that C-H consider adding contemporary
English period dictionaries to its poetry textbase, especially
Johnson's great dictionary. He also described the bilingual period
dictionary projects at the University of Toronto, which were being
funded by SSHRCC.
     The consensus seemed to be that scholars might still occupy
themselves with keyboarding and preserving accurate copies of rare
old or definitive new texts, all encoded using the evolving methods
of the TEI, as outlined, say, for Milton, by Lou Burnard in his
pamphlet on marking up the Milton textbase.  Mike Neuman discussed
the preservation of one author's work, as with Alastair McKinnon's
work on Kierkegaard or his own with Hegel.  Representatives of C-H
discussed the editorial process of deciding how much encoding might
be placed, according to the economy of scale and with respect to
the percentage of text vs. coding in the textbase. C-H may also
consider the possibility of adding digitized images of pages  of
some works to their textbase.
     At meeting's end, however, it was clear that the number of new
projects in Renaissance textbases had made the planning of a new
NEH application less desirable. Now that four commercial publishers
(OUP for Shakespeare and Milton, Blackwell for the Otago lexicon,
C-H for poetry, and InteLex for philosophical writings of the
period)  were embarking on publication of author, period and genre
corpora,  some of the most important objectives of the group were
already being met, perhaps better than they could have been imagined
initially. Co-operation among competing publishers was also
unlikely. A number of other individuals and groups were either
being funded by NEH now or were applying to it for support, among
them Leeds Barrell (Maryland) for a chronological list of events in
Renaissance London in the 1590s, Patricia Murphy, the Brown Women
Writers Project, Thomas Faulkner's edition of Burton's *Anatomy*,
the Donne and Shakespeare variorum projects, etc. An RKB would
require the participation of many of these projects, but since they
were not yet completed that participation was yet impossible.
     A number of other issues were clarified by the meeting. One is
that an RKB prototype remains highly desirable, even if it
includes a limited textbase of reference materials and major
authors. It would be well worthwhile to pursue this. Also, projects
currently underway tend to ignore Renaissance prose and drama,
manuscript materials, and non-English texts. In this light, the
upcoming Renaissance 92 meeting at Toronto offers a place to
discuss technology and shared databases and textbases with an
international community of Renaissance centres. Given the
multilingual writings of English Renaissance writers such as More,
Elyot, Bacon and Milton, the idea of a multilingual corpus
developed by an international scholarly community should be
considered. The 1991 new OED and the 1992 ALLC/ACH meetings at
Oxford also offer good occasions for future meetings.
Roy Flannagan
Ian Lancashire
April 1991

Non-Traditional Casting & *Othello*

Shakespeare Electronic Conference, Vol. 2, No. 117. Wednesday, 24 Apr 1991.
Date: 		Wed, 24 Apr 1991 14:05:23 -0400
From: 		Steve <SURCC@CUNYVM>
Subject: 2.0110  New York *Othello*
Comment:      	Re: SHK 2.0110  New York *Othello*
Casting OTHELLO:  Dionysus does funny things to and for productions.
Our basic principle for casting was talent.  Dianne Ramirez happens to
be a very dark-skinned Hispanic-surnamed lady.  The ONLY person who ever
raised a question about her color was our Othello, who said once that he
was disappointed that we didn't have a white actress in the role.
The demographics of City College's acting pool presents us with lots of fish,
many colors, unpredictable skills.  We weren't trying for any special color.
And had we found a "whiter-skin-than-snow" maiden we still would have cast
our same Brabantio, a walk-in Electrical Engineering student who had never
been in a play but has immense natural talent and a startling resemblance
to Malcolm X stepped off a Black Pride poster.  But we have a great luxury
at City College; the peoples of the world happen into our classes:
Palestinians, Pakistanis, Sri Lankans, East and West and South Africans,
up and down Americans.  Last term I asked how many were from "somewhere
else," and couldn't count the waving hands, so I asked how many were from
"here, New York City?" I and three others out of the thirty-five in the
class were native and to the manor born.
"Non-traditional" casting, like any idea, can work wonderfully as art and
again stumble nightmarishly when pursued as dogma.  We had on campus two
magnificent productions of Shakespeare determined by the make-up of the
BFA acting classes those years.  So there was a black woman Hal, another
black woman Falstaff, a Basque woman King Henry and a Hispanic woman
Worcester; a year before we had in a dense rotation five different women
playing Lear and rotating into Goneril and Regan.  As with so many invented
conventions, once introduced sensibly the game was played and accepted by
the audience.  Renaissance self-fashioning and the flexible delights of play.
Dionysus guides, but he whips nastily if his potentialities are suborned
to easy political gestures.  Cast a rigid female Latvian over a flexible
Dane as the Prince to prove a point, to make a statement, then you've got
an essay, not a play.
						Steve Urkowitz

Happy Birthday Shakespeare; Rose Theatre

Shakespeare Electronic Conference, Vol. 2, No. 115. Tuesday, 23 Apr 1991.
Date: 		Tue, 23 Apr 1991 07:22:43 -0400
From: 		Stephen Roy Miller This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
                                                        23 April 1991
      Best wishes for St George's Day 1991.  Shakespeare would have been
427.  (And died 375 years ago as I calculate.)
      Prince Charles was asked to give the Annual Shakespeare lecture in
Stratford this year and complained of the poor level of English education
and lack of knowledge of Shakespeare.
     Two years ago, now, things were alive with excitment at the discovery
of the Rose, one of Shakespeare's theatres, and the realisation that enough
survived to provide the feel of a real structure.  This 13 May, the Rose
Theatre Trust have announced, will see the public unveiling of the projected
plans for a museum to display the remains (if they are still there).  The
office building over the site, Rose Court, is nearing completion.  Prince
Charles has not yet pronounced upon its architectural merit as far as I
     By the way, RETURN TO THE FORBIDDEN PLANET, "Shakespeare's forgotten
rock-and-roll masterpiece" continues at the Cambridge theatre, to the best
of my knowledge.
                                   Stephen Miller,
				   King's College London

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