1998

Re: Edmund Shakespeare

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 9.0437  Friday, 8 May 1998.

[1]     From:   Tad Davis <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Thursday, 07 May 1998 10:59:21 -0400
        Subj:   Re: SHK 9.0434  Re: Edmund Shakespeare

[2]     From:   Louis Marder <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Thursday, 7 May 1998 12:41:48 -0500
        Subj:   Re: Edmund Shakespeare


[1]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Tad Davis <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Thursday, 07 May 1998 10:59:21 -0400
Subject: 9.0434  Re: Edmund Shakespeare
Comment:        Re: SHK 9.0434  Re: Edmund Shakespeare

David Kathman filled in the details on Edmund Shakespeare. It's always
seemed to me there was great poignancy hidden in this story-but maybe
that's my own playwright's instinct getting the better of me. (Younger
brother follows older brother into the theater, doesn't make much of an
impression, fathers an illegitimate child, life unravels-child dies,
then father dies: buried on a day when the Thames is frozen solid, and
people play shuttlecock on the ice....) Philip Burton published a novel
in 1973 ("You, My Brother", ISBN 0-39448-478-9) in which Ned Shakespeare
is the central character. It's not a particularly satisfying novel, so
the field is still open.

Tad Davis

[2]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Louis Marder <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Thursday, 7 May 1998 12:41:48 -0500
Subject:        Re: Edmund Shakespeare

Re: cost of Edmund's burial. The tolling of the great bell cost 2
shillings, not three.  Louis Marder, Shakespeare Data Banak,
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Qs: Caliban; Tempest Music; Incest

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 9.0436  Thursday, 7 May 1998.

[1]     From:   Peter Nockolds <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Wednesday, 6 May 1998 16:56:46 +0100 (BST)
        Subj:   Etymology of Caliban

[2]     From:   Billy Houck <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Wednesday, 6 May 1998 12:29:33 EDT
        Subj:   SHK 9.0430 Tempest Music

[3]     From:   Roy Flannagan <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Thursday, 07 May 1998 07:37:52 -0400
        Subj:   Incest in Hamlet


[1]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Peter Nockolds <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Wednesday, 6 May 1998 16:56:46 +0100 (BST)
Subject:        Etymology of Caliban

As Caliban and Sycorax have now been placed amongst the stars I would
offer a derivation for 'Caliban'.  The name, which seems to have puzzled
scholars, may be read as a portmanteau of two Hebrew words, 'Caleb'
meaning 'dog' and 'Liban' meaning 'white'.  The latter is also a root
for 'Libanah' the Moon.  (cf. also Lebanon.)

This is consistent with two other names in the play.  Caliban's
counterpart Ariel is generally considered to derive from the Hebrew for
'Lion' (embodying in one word the alchemical symbolism of 'the Lion's
whelp embraced by a piece of tender air' in Cymbeline.)  Caliban's
mother 'Sycorax' has been seen as a compound of the Greek words 'sys'
and 'corax' meaning 'sow' and 'raven'.  The raven embodies blackness as
in 'raven-black' (sonnet 127) and thus Sycorax and Caliban give black
and white. This duality may be reflected in Ferdinand and Miranda's game
of chess.

My feeling is that Shakespeare developed an interest in Hebrew during
the first decade of the 17th century: a study of Hebrew provides certain
clues to the sonnets. The significance of the black-white duality may
perhaps be found in terms of Cabbalistic philosophy. (as well as the
dichotomy 'to be or not to be'.)

Peter Nockolds

(References from Frank Kermode's edition of 'The Tempest', Arden series
2. pxxxviii, note 2, p26, note 258, p142.)

[2]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Billy Houck <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Wednesday, 6 May 1998 12:29:33 EDT
Subject: Tempest Music
Comment:        SHK 9.0430 Tempest Music

Does anyone know of a source (pref. not out-of-print) of sheet music for
the songs in THE TEMPEST?  Or a good recording? I'm dramaturging (is
that a verb?) the Central Coast Shakespeare Festival this summer, and
told the director of THE TEMPEST that it would be no trouble to find the
music.  I was wrong.

Billy Houck

[3]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Roy Flannagan <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Thursday, 07 May 1998 07:37:52 -0400
Subject:        Incest in Hamlet

Was the question of incest as a legal matter when a widow married her
husband's brother ever settled on the list?  Why are the sheets
incestuous, to Hamlet?  Did anyone back up Hamlet's opinion with current
legal code?  Did that discussion reach a definitive point, and, if so,
about where in the archives.

I don't remember feeling satisfied about this.

Best,
Roy

[Editor's Note: You might try send "SEARCH SHAKSPER INCEST" to
listserv@ws/bowiestate.edu and see what the SEARCH FUNCTION turns up.
Hardy]

Re: Female Roles; Edmund Shakespeare

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 9.0434  Thursday, 7 May 1998.

[1]     From:   Ed Taft <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Wednesday, 06 May 1998 10:38:44 -0400 (EDT)
        Subj:   Female Roles

[2]     From:   David J. Kathman <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Wednesday, 6 May 1998 19:12:28 +0100
        Subj:   Re: SHK 9.0430  Some Questions

[3]     From:   Nely Keinanen <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Thursday, 7 May 1998 10:21:41 +0200
        Subj:   Re: SHK 9.0430  Some Questions

[4]     From:   Pervez Rizvi <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Thursday, 7 May 1998 10:12:45 +0100
        Subj:   RE: SHK 9.0430  Some Questions


[1]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Ed Taft <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Wednesday, 06 May 1998 10:38:44 -0400 (EDT)
Subject:        Female Roles

Dear Abigail Quart,

I don't think we know for sure who played female roles, though I am
willing to be corrected on this by someone more knowledgeable.  Some
argue that boys played the roles, that is, apprentice actors, and that
seems to be the orthodox opinion. But for a very powerful argument that
sharers played these roles, see James Forse, *Art Imitates Business*,
(1995? Bowling Green Press), in which Jim points out that they are often
such important roles that more senior members of Shakespeare's troupe
might have taken them. He also points out that it is possible that some
sharers might have specialized in such roles. If so, the Elizabethan
stage might have been more like kabuki theatre than we now think.  Sorry
I can't be more definitive.

--Ed Taft

[2]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From:           David J. Kathman <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Wednesday, 6 May 1998 19:12:28 +0100
Subject: 9.0430  Some Questions
Comment:        Re: SHK 9.0430  Some Questions

Abigail Quart wrote:

>Does anyone know where I can go for info on which players in
>Shakespeare's company played the female roles? And which roles they
>played, if known?

Very little is know about this, because there are so few cast lists.
Richard Sharpe played the Duchess for the King's Men in Webster's
*Duchess of Malfi*, probably in both the original production of 1614 and
in the revival c.1620.  This indicates that he most likely played the
leading ladies around this time, though by the mid-1620s he was playing
male romantic leads.  He died in 1632.  A "Richard Birch" played Fine
Madame Would-Bee in a King's Men revival of Jonson's *Volpone*
c.1616-19, and Doll Common in a revival of *The Alchemist* around the
same time.  This "Richard Birch" was probably George Birch, who is known
to have acted with the King's Men from 1619 to 1625, but it may possibly
be a hitherto unknown actor.  Those are the only female roles I know of
that can be assigned to specific actors in Shakespeare's company, though
several other actors are known to have played unspecified female roles.

>Edmund Shakespeare died in London. My Yale edition only mentions his
>birth and death. Are there other mentions? He was "a player." With his
>brother's company? Playing what?

Edmund Shakespeare was born in Stratford in 1580.  The next mention of
him which survives is the baptism of his son Edward at St. Leonard's,
Shoreditch, on July 12, 1607; however, this son was buried at St. Giles'
Cripplegate exactly a month later, on August 12, 1607.  The burial
record indicates that the infant was "base borne".  The baptismal record
indicates that Edmund and/or his son came from "morefilds", e.g.
Moorfields, the location of the Curtain theater, where Queen Anne's
Company was acting in 1607.  However, the burial in St. Giles
Cripplegate points to the Fortune theater and Prince Henry's Men.
Edmund may have acted with one of these companies, or possibly he was a
hired man and played for both.  Or there's always the possibility that
he played with neither.  Edmund himself followed his son to the grave a
scant four and a half months later and was buried in St. Saviour's
Southwark, the parish of the Globe theater, on December 31, 1607.  This
was probably due to the influence of his brother William, a possibility
which is strengthened by the fact that Edmund's was buried in the church
(as opposed to the churchyard) and his funeral featured a forenoon knell
of the great bell (as opposed to the lesser bell).  Edmund's funeral
cost 20 shillings, whereas burial in the churchyard with a knell of the
lesser bell only cost 3 shillings, the difference doubtless being paid
for by William.

Dave Kathman
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

[3]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Nely Keinanen <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Thursday, 7 May 1998 10:21:41 +0200
Subject: 9.0430  Some Questions
Comment:        Re: SHK 9.0430  Some Questions

Regarding Abigail Quart's question about who played female roles:
Michael Shapiro includes some information about actors known for playing
female roles in his book _Gender in Play on the Shakespearean Stage_ (U
of Michigan P, 1994), chapter 2, especially notes 14 & 15 (pp 244-5).
Although not part of Shakespeare's company, one of the more interesting
figures Shapiro discusses is Edward Kynaston, an actor born in 1643 who
briefly played female roles on the Restoration stage, even after the
introduction of actresses.  Pepys saw him play the Duke's sister in
Fletcher's _The Loyal Subject_ and said that he "made the loveliest lady
that ever I saw in my life-only, her voice not very good" (qtd in
Shapiro, 201; volume 1, p. 224 of the Lathan and Matthews 11 volume
edition of Pepys diary).

--Nely Keinanen
Department of English
University of Helsinki

[4]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Pervez Rizvi <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Thursday, 7 May 1998 10:12:45 +0100
Subject: 9.0430  Some Questions
Comment:         RE: SHK 9.0430  Some Questions

I don't know if there's much evidence as to who played which female
roles, or about Edmund Shakespeare, but the 'list of principal actors'
given in the preliminary pages of the First Folio offers room for
speculation on both. The last actor named on the list is one 'Iohn
Rice'. When John Mortimer wrote his novel 'Will Shakespeare', based on
his screenplay for a TV series in the 1970s, he picked this John Rice to
be the narrator. Mortimer supposed that the last-named actor might be
the youngest. So his narrator tells us that he was the boy who played
Juliet, Portia etc. in the 1590s and is now an old man, in the years of
the Interregnum, writing his memoirs in defiance of the Puritans who
have closed the theatres.

Edmund Shakespeare is not on the Folio list and, although it claims to
be a list of the principal actors only, it's tempting to think that even
if Edmund had been a minor player in the King's Men, Heminges and
Condell might have included him for sentimental reasons. The only
biographical information I've ever read about him is given by Schoenbaum
in 'William Shakespeare: A Compact Documentary Life': he had an
illegitimate son, buried somewhere in London (Schoenbaum gives the
location). Edmund himself is buried in Southwark Cathedral, near the
Globe. I was in there once and heard an official proudly telling some
tourists "We have Shakespeare's brother buried here!"

Re: the Onlie Begetter

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 9.0435  Thursday, 7 May 1998.

From:           William Williams <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Wednesday, 06 May 1998 00:39:21 -0500
Subject: 9.0428  Re: the Onlie Begetter
Comment:        Re: SHK 9.0428  Re: the Onlie Begetter

>William Williams thinks it "unlikely" that early modern writers would
>write their initials in lower case.  My paleographic experience is
>limited, but I do know very well one set of 15 MSS of which 13 are in
>the same hand, a relatively clear secretary heavily influenced by
>italic, by a writer presumptively of Shakespeare's generation.  This
>writer frequently but not invariably uses miniscule forms at the
>beginning of sentences and proper names, and in a least one instance
>does so in a set of initials.

>Paleographically,
>Dave Evett

I agree with Dave Evett that in many manuscripts done in what we might
call an informal or draft form it is quite common to find things
minuscule where we would now write the letters as majuscules.  However,
in copies for presentation and for printers, at least in my experience,
the tendency is to capitalize even more letters than we would now.  In
addition, the minuscule long s which looks like an H is one of the least
common forms.

WPW

ANNOUNCEMENTS

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 9.0433  Thursday, 7 May 1998.

[1]     From:   Georgianna Ziegler <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Wednesday, 6 May 1998 11:18:45 -0400
        Subj:   Washington Shakespeare Season

[2]     From:   Elizabeth Abele <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Wednesday, 6 May 1998 13:11:37 -0400 (EDT)
        Subj:   Shakespop in WV: 10/31-11/2/98

[3]     From:   Georgianna Ziegler <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Wednesday, 6 May 1998 16:50:59 -0400
        Subj:   Eating in London

[4]     From:   Tanya Gough <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Wednesday, 6 May 1998 16:26:38 -0400
        Subj:   Audio News


[1]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Georgianna Ziegler <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Wednesday, 6 May 1998 11:18:45 -0400
Subject:        Washington Shakespeare Season

The Shakespeare Theatre in DC has just announced their final pick of
plays for the 1998-99 season, to be performed in the following order:

Marlowe, Edward II, adapted and directed by Garland Wright

Twelfth Night, directed by Daniel Fish

King John, directed by Michael Kahn (Washington premier)

Euripides, The Trojan Women, directed by JoAnne Akalaitis

The Merchant of Venice, directed by Michael Kahn, starring Hal Holbrook
as Shylock

Information about tickets from the Box Office: 202-393-2700.

Georgianna Ziegler
Folger Shakespeare Library

[2]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Elizabeth Abele <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Wednesday, 6 May 1998 13:11:37 -0400 (EDT)
Subject:        Shakespop in WV: 10/31-11/2/98

                         Call for Papers

                 Shakespeare in Popular Culture

                    panels to be presented at

             Mid-Atlantic Popular Culture/American
                  Culture Assocation Conference
                     Morgantown, West Virginia
                   October 30-November 1, 1998

Besides Shakespeare's secure place in the literary canon, the plays and
characters of Shakespeare have constantly appeared as part of American
popular culture.  Papers are invited that explore how (and why) American
appropriations of Shakespeare have bridged high and popular culture in
fiction, advertising, music, theatre, film, television, etc.

Please send an abstract (minimum of 150 words) for either or both
conferences before June 15, 1998 to:
                 <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>

[3]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Georgianna Ziegler <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Wednesday, 6 May 1998 16:50:59 -0400
Subject:        Eating in London

Those of you on this side of the "puddle" who are planning a trip to
London this summer may want to pick up a copy of the current May issue
of Bon Appetit magazine.  The whole issue is devoted to food in London:
restaurants, wine, beer, places to eat in department stores, cheese
stores, pubs, neighborhood restaurants, plus great recipes.  Happy
eating!

Georgianna Ziegler
Folger Shakespeare Library

[4]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Tanya Gough <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Wednesday, 6 May 1998 16:26:38 -0400
Subject:        Audio News

Just came across the following in my new release sheets:

Orson Welles' Macbeth: The Mercury Theatre Production (ed. Welles)
Incidental music composed and conducted by Bernard Hermann.  The first
in the new "Plays and Poets" series.  The next released will include
Welles' Julius Caesar, Twelfth Night and Merchant of Venice and Paul
Robeson's great Othello.  (released on the Pearl label).

We'll have them in next week.

Tanya

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