1998

Hidden Shakespeare

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 9.1274  Wednesday, 9 December 1998.

From:           Richard A Burt <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Date:           Tuesday, 08 Dec 1998 13:24:54 -0500 (EST)
Subject:        Hidden Shakespeare in Gay Porn

In a perfectly preposterous gay porn epic called WARLORDS, 1989 (A Tylor
Von Film)--"They ravish the land and leave no man standing in a time of
sexual decadence"-starring mostly stringy and very swishy English boys,
the warlord commands his two slaves to bring in the cutie he sees
wandering the countryside in his magic mirror. The dialogue is of the
"You can fuck him but don't bruise him" variety, but at this point one
of the slaves cites one of Macbeth's lines, saying, "If it were done
when 'tis done it were well it were done quickly."

Re: TV Tempest; Rhetoric; LLL; Pop

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 9.1273  Wednesday, 9 December 1998.

[1]     From:   Robert Neblett <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Tuesday, 08 Dec 1998 08:40:06 -0600
        Subj:   Re: SHK 9.1266  Re: TV Tempest

[2]     From:   Janet MacLellan <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Tuesday, 8 Dec 1998 09:57:52 -0500 (EST)
        Subj:   Rhetoric and Acting

[3]     From:   Robin Hamilton <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Tuesday, 8 Dec 1998 16:46:27 -0000
        Subj:   Re: SHK 9.1265  Re: Branagh's LLL PLUS

[4]     From:   Karen E Peterson-Kranz <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Wednesday, 9 Dec 1998 10:35:01 +1000 (GMT+1000)
        Subj:   Re: SHK 9.1237  Re: Shakespeare and Pop Culture


[1]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Robert Neblett <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Tuesday, 08 Dec 1998 08:40:06 -0600
Subject: 9.1266  Re: TV Tempest
Comment:        Re: SHK 9.1266  Re: TV Tempest

On 12-8-98 Hugh Davis wrote:

"Having seen a screener of this TV movie, I think my basic reaction is
somewhat similar to Ms. Barton's.  While the film is visually splendid,
and both Fonda and John Glover present excellent performances, the
transformation is, in the end, flawed by some inconsistencies and an
anxiousness to create a heroic Prospero for today's politically correct
age.  I'll reserve full comments until it airs-lest I spoil NBC's tricks
of adaptation for anyone planning on watching it-but I'm anxious to see
what other list members think."

Is portraying Prospero as a heroic figure a gesture of political
correctness?  I always thought he was the hero of the piece.  Now,
portraying Caliban as a hero could possibly be construed as a
postcolonial attempt at reconciliation with the past through
revisionism, I think.

[2]-------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Janet MacLellan <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Tuesday, 8 Dec 1998 09:57:52 -0500 (EST)
Subject:        Rhetoric and Acting

To Brooke Brod:

An understanding of classical rhetoric can be invaluable to the modern
Shakespearean actor in a number of ways. (Apologies in advance if any of
the following reiterates what you already know.)

1) It helps one recognize and interpret Shakespeare's verbal patterning.
Elocutio, or style, is probably the aspect of classical rhetoric most
modern actors first encounter. Learning a few of the hundreds of
rhetorical figures studied as a matter of course by Renaissance
schoolboys can alert an actor to their presence-and potential
functions-in Shakespeare's plays. For an introduction to this subject, I
second the recommendation of Vickers's "Shakespeare's Use of Rhetoric"
in _A New Companion to Shakespeare Studies_. For a model of how to use
this awareness in reading Shakespeare's text, see the first few chapters
of Bertram Joseph's _Acting Shakespeare_. (For a more recent, but very
brief discussion of the value of Shakespeare's rhetorical devices for
the modern actor, see Kristin Linklater's Freeing Shakespeare's Voice.)
For a more extensive analysis of the "rhetorical structure" of speeches
in Shakespeare, see Brian Vickers, The Artistry of Shakespeare's Prose.
A note on terminology: Because most rhetorical figures have Latin as
well as Greek names, learning them can be a bit confusing. I wouldn't
let that stop you from familiarizing yourself with certain key figures
such as anaphora, antithesis, antimetabole, polyptoton, and so on. It
is, of course, possible to spot verbal patterns without learning their
names, but after saying "Hey! This line begins with the same word that
ended the one before it," a few dozen times, you're likely to find that
knowing the word "anadiplosis" actually makes your life easier. Richard
Lanham's A Handlist of Rhetorical Terms is a useful guide: it lists
figures alphabetically as well as by function, and cross-references
Greek and Latin (and even Puttenham's whimsical English) names of
figures.

2) It alerts one to the strategies and structures of argumentation in
the plays. Absorbing as the study of style can be, in classical
rhetorical theory it forms only one stage in a larger process. Classical
rhetoric advocates a five-part method of composition: invention of
arguments, arrangement of one's material, apt expression of that
material (i.e. style), memorization, and delivery. The standard
introduction to this method for students is Edward Corbett's Classical
Rhetoric for the Modern Student, but if you'd like to start with
something shorter, try "The Processes of Rhetoric" in Brian Vickers's
Classical Rhetoric in English Poetry. What use is all this to the actor
or director? Get to know what an enthymeme is (invention), and you'll
find it much easier to follow a character's reasoning and/or thought
processes, and to spot strengths or weaknesses in both. Get acquainted
with the standard forms of the set speech, and you'll develop a much
better appreciation of the variations Shakespeare spins on them. [Feel
free to contact me off-list if you'd like examples of some articles that
do this.]

3) It offers one valuable insight into Shakespeare's cultural context,
as well as into the habit of mind implied by his dramaturgy.  A number
of scholars have published thought-provoking cultural readings of early
modern rhetoric, in relation to Shakespeare and otherwise (e.g.
Rebhorn's The Emperor of Men's Minds, recommended earlier in this
thread). The book I would most recommend to the director or dramaturge
as a starting point would be Joel Altman's The Tudor Play of Mind, which
asks the question, "what happens to a mind conditioned to argue _in
utramque partem_--on both sides of the question-as Renaissance students
were trained to do?" What a mind like Shakespeare's can gain from such
an educational system we see in his plays: the quality that has been
referred to as his "two-eyedness" and is now often celebrated as his
"dialogism" has much to do with this essential aspect of rhetorical
culture.

Investigation of any or all of these aspects of classical rhetoric
yields very "playable" insights into Shakespeare's dramaturgy. I
encourage you to explore the subject further-I think you would find it
very rewarding.

Janet MacLellan
University of Toronto
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

[3]-------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Robin Hamilton <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Tuesday, 8 Dec 1998 16:46:27 -0000
Subject: 9.1265  Re: Branagh's LLL PLUS
Comment:        Re: SHK 9.1265  Re: Branagh's LLL PLUS

>>What was the pronunciation question?
>
>It was about the name which appears in the 1598 quarto as "Longauill" -
>I have no idea what the British stage pronunciation of this might be,
>having seen only U.S. actors in the play.

I think the British pronunciation would be Long-ga-vill-but more
importantly, for the rhythm, the exact pronunciation is less important
than the stress pattern, which demands    /   X   X.

Robin Hamilton

[4]-------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Karen E Peterson-Kranz <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Wednesday, 9 Dec 1998 10:35:01 +1000 (GMT+1000)
Subject: 9.1237  Re: Shakespeare and Pop Culture
Comment:        Re: SHK 9.1237  Re: Shakespeare and Pop Culture

Barbara Hume mentioned the many Star Trek Shakespeare references...one
episode from the original series actually featured an interplanetary
group of Shakespearean players.  I can't recall the episode title
offhand, but the story line revolved around the troupe's founder, a
colonial dictator convicted in absentia of genocide before he took a new
identity as an actor.

Also, on the pop culture/Star Trek connection, don't forget the Star
Trek VI movie, "The Undiscovered Country," with marvelous Shakespearean
quotes delivered by Christopher Plummer as a Klingon commander (he does
a terrific "cry havoc...").  Also: "You can't appreciate Shakespeare
unless you experience it in the original Klingon."

What I won't do to avoid grading undergraduate essays.

Karen Peterson-Kranz
Department of English & Applied Linguistics
University of Guam

Re: Introductions

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 9.1271  Wednesday, 9 December 1998.

[1]     From:   Cary M. Mazer <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Tuesday, 08 Dec 1998 08:37:20 -0500
        Subj:   Re: SHK 9.1262  Re: Introductions

[2]     From:   Jamie Brough <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Tuesday, 8 Dec 1998 10:06:58 EST
        Subj:   Re: SHK 9.1260  Introductions

[3]     From:   Janet Maclellan <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Tuesday, 8 Dec 1998 10:26:58 -0500 (EST)
        Subj:   Introductions

[4]     From:   David Evett <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Tuesday, 08 Dec 1998 10:28:41 -0500
        Subj:   Re: SHK 9.1260  Introductions

[5]     From:   Tim Perfect <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Tuesday, 8 Dec 1998 08:12:40 -0800 (PST)
        Subj:   Re: SHK 9.1262  Introductions

[6]     From:   Pervez Rizvi  <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Tuesday, 8 Dec 1998 17:16:56 -0000
        Subj:   RE: SHK 9.1262  Re: Introductions

[7]     From:   Ed Pixley <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Tuesday, 08 Dec 1998 14:34:11 -0400 (EDT)
        Subj:   Re: SHK 9.1260  Introductions

[8]     From:   Ed Pixley <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Tuesday, 08 Dec 1998 14:38:06 -0400 (EDT)
        Subj:   Re: SHK 9.1260  Introductions

[9]     From:   Robert A. Haas <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Tuesday, 8 Dec 1998 16:48:19 -0500 (EST)
        Subj:   Re: SHK 9.1260  Introductions


[1]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Cary M. Mazer <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Tuesday, 08 Dec 1998 08:37:20 -0500
Subject: 9.1262  Re: Introductions
Comment:        Re: SHK 9.1262  Re: Introductions

Entrance introductions might be more useful-perhaps even *necessary*--in
plays written for a standing company of actors, in a theatre in which
there is a lot of doubling.  If spectators are familiar with each of the
actors from one play to the next, then they will recognize the identity
of the actor before they figure out what character that actor is playing
in this particular play.  And, in the case of plays with a lot of
doubling, they will recognize the identity of the actor before they
figure out which character that actor is playing in this particular
scene.  There are moments when the identity of the character is left
ambiguous (I'd like to think intentionally so), while the identity of
the actor would be self-evident.  For example, when Oliver arrives in
Arden late in As You Like It, introduces himself to Ganymede and Aliena,
and narrates Oliver's encounter with Orlando and the lioness, spectators
would certainly recognize the actor who had been playing Oliver; but
they may be none to certain whether the actor was playing Oliver or some
new character altogether-the third-person narrative would suggest the
latter-and would therefore be as surprised as Aliena when he shifts to
the first person and reveals himself to be Oliver, converted by his
experience.  I wonder whether Bottom, reentering with the ass's head,
would be immediately be recognized as Bottom translated, or would
instead be seen as some magical creature, where it not for they way his
friends talk to him.

Cary

[2]-------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Jamie Brough <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Tuesday, 8 Dec 1998 10:06:58 EST
Subject: 9.1260  Introductions
Comment:        Re: SHK 9.1260  Introductions

I suspect it has much to do with the view afforded the less well-off
patrons of the Globe. Also, as many roles would have been shared, with
Ophelia played by a young male actor, such clarification would seem
prudent. However, both the examples you cited contain valuable
observations of character (together with identity!). 'Here comes
Brabantio and the valiant Moor [Senator]', for example, is followed
immediately by the Duke's welcome of 'Valiant Othello'.  This repetition
establishes the Moor's worth in our minds prior to Brabantio's charge
against him to the council and adds to the irony of Othello's fall from
grace.

I have just read H. Hill's reply after writing this-and he does more for
this idea.  Although I should mention that in Othello the observations
of the Duke and Senator are made ironic by the play's later
circumstances-they truly believe in O.'s worth when they address him as
'valiant'.

Jamie Brough

[3]-------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Janet Maclellan <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Tuesday, 8 Dec 1998 10:26:58 -0500 (EST)
Subject:        Introductions

On a pragmatic note, a one- or two-line introduction from an onstage
character gives the actor who is just entering some time to get down- or
centre-stage before speaking.

Janet MacLellan
University of Toronto
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

[4]-------------------------------------------------------------
From:           David Evett <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Tuesday, 08 Dec 1998 10:28:41 -0500
Subject: 9.1260  Introductions
Comment:        Re: SHK 9.1260  Introductions

In re Jacob Baltuch's question about the theatrical purpose of having
one character "introduce" another who is just entering: among other
things, it helps in the process of attaching name to face in a
dramaturgy that more often identifies personages by role.

Dave Evett

[5]-------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Tim Perfect <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Tuesday, 8 Dec 1998 08:12:40 -0800 (PST)
Subject: 9.1262  Introductions
Comment:        Re: SHK 9.1262  Introductions

This is what makes performing Shakespeare so wonderful for an actor.
Everything an actor needs is in the language, from the characters and
setting:

"Tranio, since for the great desire I had
To see fair Padua, nursery of arts,
I am arrived for fruitful Lombardy,
The pleasant garden of great Italy.."

to the thoughts and desires of the characters. That is why you don't
need extensive sets, props, or costumes, and that is why the works of
Shakespeare have lasted to the present day.  Because in the simple
interaction of actor, word and audience, the language of Shakespeare can
bring to life the tranquility of a mountain brook, or the rage of a
battle, with a reality that modern stage machinery cannot begin to
achieve.

That is why the works of Shakespeare are in complete contrast to the
works of Ibsen or Chekhov. Chekhov is a master of subtext.
Shakespeare's characters speak their subtext. As Edward Payson Call,
protege of Sir Tyrone Guthrie once told me, "Love the words."

How simple, and how true.

Tim Perfect
Cleveland Shakespeare Festival
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

[6]-------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Pervez Rizvi  <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Tuesday, 8 Dec 1998 17:16:56 -0000
Subject: 9.1262  Re: Introductions
Comment:        RE: SHK 9.1262  Re: Introductions

The other use for "introductions" is to let the audience know where the
action is set. Two examples that come to mind: "Before Angiers, well met
brave Austria!" from King John, and "Once again, well met at Cyprus"
from Othello.

[7]-------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Ed Pixley <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Tuesday, 08 Dec 1998 14:34:11 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: 9.1260  Introductions
Comment:        Re: SHK 9.1260  Introductions

This is probably going to be too quick an answer, since I have a lot of
papers to grade, but off the top of my head it has to do with the way we
direct focus on the stage.  The entrance of a new set of characters
requires a readjustment on the part of everybody on stage, a transition
from the thoughts and feelings which had been dominating their attention
to a new set of thoughts and feelings affected by a new presence.  As
audience, it is not enough for us to be aware that these people have
entered; we must also be conscious of any adjustments being made to that
entrance by those already on stage.  With Brabantio and Othello's
entrance, I believe several people are involved, with several different
possible adjustments they could be making.  With Hamlet, having just
completed the "To be . . ." speech, we must be at least as interested in
his adjustment as we are in her entrance.

That announcement gives us that moment to notice it.  But it could, in
some productions, also give us a chance to notice the adjustment of
those people hiding behind the arras, because they are, after all, also
still on stage.  In film, such lines are gratuitous, because the camera
can pan or jump to all those reactions and focus for us.  A film
director might justifiably cut them, but most playwrights, not just
Shakespeare, are very conscious of creating lines that in fact guide the
visual progression of the stage focus.

Ed Pixley
SUNY-Oneonta

[8]-------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Ed Pixley <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Tuesday, 08 Dec 1998 14:38:06 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: 9.1260  Introductions
Comment:        Re: SHK 9.1260  Introductions

> I have one simple question about the very widespread stage convention
. . .

One more note, Mr. Baltuch.  Thanks for asking what I think to be an
extremely important question, and for giving me an opportunity to share
a stage director's perspective on play structure which rarely gets
talked about among those whose background is dominantly literary.  I
hope I was helpful.

Ed Pixley
SUNY-Oneonta

[9]-------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Robert A. Haas <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Tuesday, 8 Dec 1998 16:48:19 -0500 (EST)
Subject: 9.1260  Introductions
Comment:        Re: SHK 9.1260  Introductions

Well, it is one way of identifying just which character has entered, a
valuable practice in the days before programs.

Bob Haas
Department of English
University of North Carolina at Greensboro

Re: Two questions

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 9.1272  Wednesday, 9 December 1998.

[1]     From:   Helen Ostovich <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Tuesday, 8 Dec 1998 12:17:07 -0500
        Subj:   Re: SHK 9.1261  Two questions

[2]     From:   Takashi Kozuka <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Tuesday, 08 Dec 1998 15:00:55 PST
        Subj:   Re: SHK 9.1261 Two questions


[1]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Helen Ostovich <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Tuesday, 8 Dec 1998 12:17:07 -0500
Subject: 9.1261  Two questions
Comment:        Re: SHK 9.1261  Two questions

Re #1, on "dead men's fingers" = testiculus canis, dogstones or dog's
testicles; also called dog's cods, fool's ballocks, etc.

Re #2: on urinals: see 1H4 2.1, in which visitors at the inn complain
about having to take a leak in the fireplace, because no other facility
was available inside.  The result, aside from the stench, was abundant
insect life.  Falstaff, however, has a famous entrance line in 2H4
calling for a "jordan" or urinal, so some inns kept them available for
customers.

Helen Ostovich
Editor, EARLY THEATRE / Dept of English CNH-321
McMaster University

[2]-------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Takashi Kozuka <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Tuesday, 08 Dec 1998 15:00:55 PST
Subject: 9.1261 Two questions
Comment:        Re: SHK 9.1261 Two questions

According to The Norton Shakespeare, '[a]mong the recorded names for the
purple orchis are "priest's-pintle" (penis), "dog's cullions"
(testicles), "goat's cullions", and "fool's ballochs"' (p. 1740).  The
4th edition of David Bevington's The Complete Works of Shakespeare
explains that these names have their origins in the tubers of the orchis
which resemble testicles.

Takashi Kozuka
PhD Student
Centre for the Study of the Renaissance
University of Warwick (UK)

Re: Plagiarism

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 9.1270  Wednesday, 9 December 1998.

[1]     From:   Tiffany Rasovic <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Tuesday, 08 Dec 1998 09:25:11 -0500
        Subj:   Re: SHK 9.1253  Re: Plagiarism

[2]     From:   Mike Jensen <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Tuesday, 08 Dec 1998 08:39:02 -0800
        Subj:   SHK 9.1253  Re: Plagiarism

[3]     From:   Michael Friedman <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Tuesday, 08 Dec 1998 12:05:38 -0400 (EDT)
        Subj:   Re: SHK 9.1253  Re: Plagiarism

[4]     From:   Peter Hillyar-Russ <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Tuesday, 8 Dec 1998 17:40:34 -0000
        Subj:   RE: Plagiarism

[5]     From:   Karen E Peterson-Kranz <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Wednesday, 9 Dec 1998 10:59:29 +1000 (GMT+1000)
        Subj:   Re: SHK 9.1242  Re: Plagiarism


[1]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Tiffany Rasovic <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Tuesday, 08 Dec 1998 09:25:11 -0500
Subject: 9.1253  Re: Plagiarism
Comment:        Re: SHK 9.1253  Re: Plagiarism

Heard on the Boston news this morning, 12/8/98: Boston University's law
suit against several purveyors of internet term papers was thrown out of
court...the grounds were not explicitly described, but I imagine that
this means that business has one set of rules and academia another.
They also mentioned that only one student had been found "guilty" of
using an on-line paper for a BU class.

[2]-------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Mike Jensen <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Tuesday, 08 Dec 1998 08:39:02 -0800
Subject: Re: Plagiarism
Comment:        SHK 9.1253  Re: Plagiarism

> Most of what gets plagiarized is general ideas.  And the most common
> source of plagiarism still is the old stand-by Cliff's Notes.  (I met
> Cliff Hillegas at a conference once and told him what I thought of him.
> It wasn't pretty!)

He probably cried all the way to the bank.

In a previous (and much unhappier) life I was a bookseller.  I shall
never forget the student who came in and asked, "Do you have MACBETH by
Cliff Snotes?"

Cheers,
Mike Jensen

[3]-------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Michael Friedman <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Tuesday, 08 Dec 1998 12:05:38 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: 9.1253  Re: Plagiarism
Comment:        Re: SHK 9.1253  Re: Plagiarism

After reading some of the recent postings on plagiarism, I thought I
would share my own experience from this semester.  In response to some
discussion questions on Julius Caesar, one of my students turned in her
assignment, but the writing style differed markedly from her previous
work, and the responses didn't really answer the questions.  So, I
turned to the first place I look in such instances, Cliff's Notes, and
sure enough, the assignment matched that source word-for-word.

When I later confronted the student with the evidence, she swore
vehemently that she had never seen the Cliff's Notes.  To excuse
herself, she insisted, "I downloaded it all from the Internet!"

        Michael Friedman
        University of Scranton

[4]-------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Peter Hillyar-Russ <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Tuesday, 8 Dec 1998 17:40:34 -0000
Subject:        RE: Plagiarism

My father told me that when he was at an English "Public" school in the
1930's the teachers worked on the principle that "To copy from one book
was plagiarism and merited a beating, to copy from two was research and
merited a beta. You had to add your own ideas to get an alpha."

Peter Hillyar-Russ
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

[5]-------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Karen E Peterson-Kranz <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Wednesday, 9 Dec 1998 10:59:29 +1000 (GMT+1000)
Subject: 9.1242  Re: Plagiarism
Comment:        Re: SHK 9.1242  Re: Plagiarism

Thanks to Gabriel Egan for sharing his "Racism in Othello" purchased
paper.  No, I would certainly not give it above a "C".  Nevertheless, I
am disturbed...my own personal anti-plagiarism antenna would not have
been raised by that paper simply because it was so very bad.  It really
did read like a typical, clumsy, unthoughtful student paper.  Usually, I
can spot plagiarized work easily simply because it is suspiciously
good.  Do you think the electronic purveyors of such papers have figured
this out, and are intentionally making the work they have available more
realistically "student-like"?  While I wouldn't give the Othello paper
more than a C, I know some faculty members who would give it an "A"
simply because the spelling was OK and it was more or less grammatical.

Perhaps I am just becoming over-paranoid.

One person asked teachers what percentage of papers they suspect are
plagiarized. My answer: a lot.  With my students, however, I suspect
that many of them plagiarize from ignorance rather than from larcenous
intent.  A great number of them, especially freshman, simply don't
understand the difference between paraphrasing some source and copying
it. There are those who, obviously, turn something in which is a
conscious attempt to cheat: these are pretty easily spotted because they
are: a) papers done by past students of mine, who don't know that I
change the assignments every year; b) papers that are printed out of
someone's CD-ROM encyclopedia...sometimes the student doesn't even
bother to remove the copyright mark at the bottom; c) odd mixtures of
incomprehensible student writing and brilliant, unattributed,
plagiarized material which quite often I can identify from style or
content.

Beyond using drafts, distinctive assignments, and the other ideas that
have been contributed to the list, here's one more:

For every single course I teach, I require the students to write a one
page, in-class essay on the first day of the course.  I tell them this
is to help me get to know them and their writing better.  And it is.
But it is mostly for my reference.  I keep these essays until the end of
the term, and if I get any suspicious work, I compare it with the
in-class product.    When I confront students, I call them in, hold up
their first in-class effort, and say "This is what you wrote on the
first day of class."  Meaningful silence.  "And this is what you turned
in last week." More meaningful silence.  So far, they have always
confessed on the spot and begged forgiveness.

For what it's worth...

Karen Peterson-Kranz
University of Guam

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