2002

Rebellious Prophecies

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 13.1958  Tuesday, 24 September 2002

From:           Frank Whigham <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Friday, 20 Sep 2002 10:34:06 -0500
Subject:        Rebellious Prophecies

Dear Colleagues,

I am trying to locate samples (preferably in verse) of popular
prophecies seen as seditious from the Peasants' Revolt of 1381 and Jack
Cade's rebellion against Henry VI in 1450, as well as anything of this
kind from the reign of Richard II. If they can be shown to have been
know in the sixteenth century, so much the better. Can any of you
suggest places to explore, collections I might not know to look for,
etc.? I've consulted most of the book-length literature on the
rebellions, I believe.

Thank you very much.

Frank Whigham

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Authorial Intentions

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 13.1957  Tuesday, 24 September 2002

From:           Matthew Baynham <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Sunday, 22 Sep 2002 11:01:42 +0100
Subject:        Authorial Intentions

I tend to think that Annalisa Kamaralli's version risks overstatement.
With regard to the history of criticism of Measure, for example, one
important strand is the notion of the play, in whole or in part, as a
Christian allegory. One may or may not accept that interpretation, but
it is difficult to see how there can even be meaningful discussion of it
if the idea of the author's intention is eliminated. The concept of
allegory seems indispensably to connote the concept of authorial
intention. I find it difficult to think it right that the literary genre
of allegory (which certainly does predate Shakespeare) can be dismissed
a priori in this way.  I would certainly tend to call such a conclusion
'reductive'.

Or take another exception: I don't quite understand how the scholarly
work which has revised our opinion of the two versions of King Lear
could have been done without some consideration of the intention of the
author in rewriting, cutting and revising his work.

I tend to arrive at a formulation something like this:

The intention of the author can never be fully and reliably recovered
and is of no decisive value in describing the effect or effects of a
text.  However, it is a proper subject of scholarly enquiry, which may
illuminate some aspects of how the text has come to have the effects it
does.

It is perhaps worth saying that such a formulation need not tend to
Bardolatry. In Measure, I tend to want the category of authorial
intention to explain why the thing goes wrong!

I would be very interested to hear what others suggest to their students
on this.

Matthew Baynham

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"COLONIAL SHAKESPEARE PERFORMANCE, TRANSLATION,

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 13.1955  Tuesday, 24 September 2002

From:           Michael Best <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Saturday, 21 Sep 2002 08:46:53 -0700
Subject:        "COLONIAL  SHAKESPEARE PERFORMANCE, TRANSLATION, and
RECEPTION"

SHAKSPERians may be interested in the following call for papers:

THE SIXTH TRIENNIAL CONGRESS OF THE SHAKESPEARE SOCIETY OF SOUTHERN
AFRICA

"COLONIAL  SHAKESPEARE PERFORMANCE, TRANSLATION, and RECEPTION"
 JUNE 25 - 28, 2003
 Rhodes University
 GRAHAMSTOWN, Eastern Province, South Africa

A CALL FOR PAPERS

The Conference will interpret the term 'Colonial' very broadly to
include all cultural participation in the Shakespearean diaspora. Papers
are invited on the following topics:-

1) Comparative performance and production at different times and places;
2) The indigenisation of Shakespeare;
3) Colonial Shakespeare in film and television;
4) The Shakespeare text and colonial politics;
5) Shakespeare and the colonial book trade;
6) The colonial touring companies;
7) Shakespeare and colonial education;
8) Shakespeare reviewing in the colonies;
9) The influence of metropolitan Shakespeare companies on colonial
Shakespeare performances;
10) Other relevant topics.

Please send abstracts of approximately 250-500 words, giving the title
of the paper plus a short CV. Those who wish to co-ordinate special
interest sessions should notify the convenor of the topic and
participants.

THE CONGRESS CONVENOR, COLONIAL SHAKESPEARE
c/o The Institute for the Study
of English in Africa
Rhodes University
P O Box 94
GRAHAMSTOWN, 6140
Republic of South Africa

ABSTRACTS BY 30 NOVEMBER 2002
(Papers should be 30 minutes in length)
FOR CONGRESS INFORMATION AND REGULAR UPDATES VISIT:-
    <http://www.ru.ac.za/institutes/isea/shake/newconf.htm>
Contact:  Congress Convenor, Hilde Slinger: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
(h) tel/fax: + 27 (0)46-6222318
(o) tel: + 27 (0)46-6038335

_______________________________________________________________
S H A K S P E R: The Global Shakespeare Discussion List
Hardy M. Cook, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The S H A K S P E R Web Site <http://www.shaksper.net>

DISCLAIMER: Although SHAKSPER is a moderated discussion list, the
opinions expressed on it are the sole property of the poster, and the
editor assumes no responsibility for them.

Entertainment

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 13.1956  Tuesday, 24 September 2002

From:           R. A. Cantrell <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Sunday, 22 Sep 2002 00:21:33 -0500
Subject:        Entertainment

Has anyone done a study that focuses on determining what forms of
entertainment, popular or other, that Shakespeare knew/enjoyed?

_______________________________________________________________
S H A K S P E R: The Global Shakespeare Discussion List
Hardy M. Cook, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The S H A K S P E R Web Site <http://www.shaksper.net>

DISCLAIMER: Although SHAKSPER is a moderated discussion list, the
opinions expressed on it are the sole property of the poster, and the
editor assumes no responsibility for them.

Re: Bushmen Don't Understand Hamlet

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 13.1954  Tuesday, 24 September 2002

From:           Robin Hamilton <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Saturday, 21 Sep 2002 09:55:26 +0100
Subject: 13.1926 Re: Bushmen Don't Understand Hamlet
Comment:        Re: SHK 13.1926 Re: Bushmen Don't Understand Hamlet

Positively my last word on this topic ...

Between 1949 and 1953, Laura Bohannan, together with her husband Paul,
both anthropology graduates of Oxford University, worked with the Tiv in
Nigeria.

This resulted in a formal anthropological text which they co-authored,
_The Tiv of Central Nigeria_ (1953).

[Paul Bohannan went on to publish several other works on the Tiv, only
one of which was co-authored by his wife -- _Tiv Economy_ (1968).]

In 1954, "Elenore Smith Bowen" published 'an anthropological novel',
_Return to Laughter_, about her work among an (unnamed) African tribe.

[Laura Bohannan, for sensible professional reasons, originally published
this work under a slight transposition of her maiden name of Elizabeth
Bowen-Smith.  By the time the second edition appeared in 1964, she had
dropped this veil, and included an "Author's Note by Laura Bohannan".
Whether or not the distancing of "Elenore Smith Bowen" from "Laura
Bohannan" was ever +meant+ to stand up, it certainly lasted for less
than ten years.]

Finally, the third leg of this strange anthropological tripod, Laura
Bohannan, in her character as professional anthropologist, in 1954 or
1955, delivered a semi-humorous talk on BBC radio's Third Program:
"Miching Mallecho, That Means Witchcraft", describing how she attempted
to narrate _Hamlet_ to the Tiv, and the results thereof.

... to pause for stock at this point ...

Round about 1955, we have three distinct texts:

1) An orthodox anthropological study of the Tiv.
2) An 'anthropological novel' involving an unnamed African tribe.
3) A semi-facetious radio broadcast by an anthropologist describing an
incident while she was working with the Tiv.

So where, specifically, does "Shakespeare in the Bush" come from?

>From (3) and (3) alone.

_The Tiv of Central Nigeria_ is an "academic monograph", staying
strictly within the decorum of the discipline as it was understood in
the early fifties.

But there are radical differences even between the two 'non-orthodox'
texts, _Return to Laughter_  and what will end up as "Shakespeare in the
Bush".

Laura Bohannan (leaving the veil aside) presents [see below] the novel
as a deliberate fiction, doesn't name the tribe, doesn't try to
introduce them to Shakespeare, and not only strongly characterises but
specifically names the tribal figures in the novel.

Laura-Bohannan-the-facetious-anthropologist names the tribe but not the
characters, doesn't characterise the figures she meets, and implicitly
(whether truly or not) presents her work as "fact".  And, of course, the
centre of this text is the attempt by "Laura Bohannan" to introduce the
Tiv to the (universal [?]) _Hamlet_.

{As an aside, there is a curious equivocation in the original title of
"Shakespeare in the Bush" -- "Miching Mallecho, That Means Witchcraft".
While witchcraft +does+ occur as a concern of the Tiv in the radio
piece, it also figures as one of the central concerns of the unnamed
tribe in the 'novel' -- both through the narrator worrying about herself
being taken for a witch, and through other women being defined as
witches.  If LB was so concerned to distance herself from ESB, why pick
a title for her talk that makes one of the few major links between the
novel and the talk?  And then when the talk finally goes fully
anthropologically legit in 1966, it's given a more neutral and much less
resonant title.  A thought ... }

Then the status of the texts begins to change ...

[To get this out of the road: _Return to Laughter_ shifts from being, in
the fifties, something to which a "respectable" anthropologist daren't
admit, till today it is one of the classic texts often used to document
a major shift in the self-definition of anthropology.]

... and Miching Mallecho begins its journey towards canonical status in
Critical and Cultural Studies Courses ...

In order for a text to be easily teachable, it has to be available.
Laura Bohannan's "Miching Mallecho" first crystallized out of the
ephemeral aether not, as you might expect, in the pages of +The
Listener+ (the house-organ for BBC radio, which often printed broadcast
talks) but in _From the third programme: a ten years' anthology_ edited
by J. Morris for the Nonesuch press in 1956.

At this point, the printed version of the talk retains its original
Miching Mallecho title.

[There is a curious irony in that, while the name of Laura Bohannan
fails to appear in the pages of +The Listener+ between 1952 and 1956, in
1954 her husband Paul there publishes "Translation -- A Problem in
Anthropology", which names the Tiv and draws on his time there.]

With that 1956 printing, Hamlet and the Tiv (let's call it) has escaped
ephemerality but not yet achieved respectability.  This occurred ten
years later when "Miching Mallecho" (now retitled, but otherwise
unaltered) was (re)printed in the eminently-respectable academic journal
_Natural History_ (August/September 1966) as "Shakespeare in the Bush".

(Just two years after, let's note, the +very+ public acknowledgement of
the identity of Laura Bohannan and "Elenore Smith Bowen" in the second
edition of _Return to Laughter_.)

After that, as the clich


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