2004

The Murder of Gonzago

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 15.0890  Monday, 19 April 2004

[1]     From:   Jack Heller <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Friday, 16 Apr 2004 07:32:02 -0500 (EST)
        Subj:   Re: SHK 15.0876 The Murder of Gonzago

[2]     From:   Thomas Larque <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Friday, 16 Apr 2004 13:46:05 +0100
        Subj:   Re: SHK 15.0888 The Murder of Gonzago

[3]     From:   Edmund Taft <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Friday, 16 Apr 2004 09:46:36 -0400
        Subj:   The Murder of Gonzago

[4]     From:   Bill Arnold <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Friday, 16 Apr 2004 08:34:25 -0700 (PDT)
        Subj:   Re: SHK 15.0888 The Murder of Gonzago

[5]     From:   Alan Horn <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Friday, 16 Apr 2004 15:38:24 EDT
        Subj:   Re: SHK 15.0888 The Murder of Gonzago

[6]     From:   Jay Feldman <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Friday, 16 Apr 2004 14:19:24 -1000
        Subj:   Re: SHK 15.0888 The Murder of Gonzago


[1]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Jack Heller <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Friday, 16 Apr 2004 07:32:02 -0500 (EST)
Subject: 15.0876 The Murder of Gonzago
Comment:        Re: SHK 15.0876 The Murder of Gonzago

This and the three sons in Hamlet thread have gotten away from my
ability to contribute in a timely fashion. It is the longest running
thread I've ever started, and even when I've disagreed with some
responses, I do appreciate them.

When I began the thread, I also asked about other plays-within-plays,
whether any of them (other than "Pyramus and Thisbe") end as the
participants expect. Would prior experiences of plays-within-plays shape
the Globe audience response? Which other dramas should we look to?

And a new question: I've noticed in Hamlet criticism, particularly
Girard's "Hamlet's Dull Revenge," references to prior revenge tragedies.
  But most revenge tragedies I can think of follow Hamlet: Antonio's
Revenge, The Atheist's Tragedy, The Revenge of Bussy D'Ambois, The
Revenger's Tragedy. I can only think of The Spanish Tragedy and the
ur-Hamlet and predecessors. So what other revenge tragedies would date
between Spanish Tragedy and Hamlet?

Jack Heller
Huntington College

[2]-------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Thomas Larque <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Friday, 16 Apr 2004 13:46:05 +0100
Subject: 15.0888 The Murder of Gonzago
Comment:        Re: SHK 15.0888 The Murder of Gonzago

I'm not sure whether anybody has pointed out that - theology aside -
Shakespeare *needs* purgatory for the literary situation in "Hamlet".

If Old Hamlet's spirit, on his body being killed by Claudius, went
directly to heaven and eternal bliss, then Young Hamlet is rather less
likely to be provoked into bitter and angry revenge (as required by the
play).  Indeed, as Feste points out in his truthful jests to Olivia in
"Twelfth Night", a true Christian should theoretically rejoice that
their dead loved ones are in heaven rather than mourning for them (or
trying to stick sharp pieces of metal into the ones who sent them there).

By contrast, if the ghost of Old Hamlet came from Hell, then Old Hamlet
would have to have been so evil as not to deserve the Christian reward
of spending afterlife with God and Jesus, and was instead deserving of
eternal punishment for presumably unspeakable sins.  In this case, Young
Hamlet's motivation would once again be seriously dented.  Why should he
make so much effort to revenge an evil, unpleasant father?  For
Shakespeare's play to have the effect that it does, at least Young
Hamlet (and probably the audience) must be convinced that Old Hamlet was
a noble, kindly King brutally and undeservingly murdered by a monster.

So even if Shakespeare was himself a Protestant, or even a loyal
propagandist for anti-Catholicism (as has been suggested, occasionally -
in stark contrast to the entirely opposite view, often voiced, that he
was himself a Catholic), then he might have allowed these fragments of
Purgatorial thinking to appear because his play needed them, just as
other plays needed Venus and Cupid, or Mars and Jupiter, or Roman belief
in the virtue and nobility of suicide.

Thomas Larque.
"Shakespeare and His Critics"       "British Shakespeare Association"
http://shakespearean.org.uk           http://britishshakespeare.ws

[3]-------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Edmund Taft <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Friday, 16 Apr 2004 09:46:36 -0400
Subject:        The Murder of Gonzago

Referring to the origin and nature of the Ghost (Is it from purgatory?
from hell?), Don Bloom writes:

"Shakespeare does not bother about that because it is not important
enough to bother about."

This is a good example of Don's approach in general. If a question is
difficult or not capable of easy resolution by referring to the critics
of the 1940's, then the question must be wrong or not important or
reveal the shortcomings of whoever asks the question.

Nonsense. The nature of the ghost is stressed in 1.5 repeatedly and
hangs over the play (and over Hamlet) like a black shroud. It won't go
away, no matter how much Don wants it to. Moreover, Don's logic is
faulty: the devil can quote scripture for his own purposes.

That is, the fact that the Ghost's account of its death seems accurate
proves nothing about its origin - nothing. How delicious (from the
devil's point of view) to use the truth to damn Hamlet! - if it's the
devil (or old Hamlet in hell) who appears in 1.5.

Just about everybody (except Don) accepts that, among other things, the
play *Hamlet* is an intellectual tour-de-force. Such plays are designed
to examine the very questions that Don wants us not to look at.

Ed Taft

[4]-------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Bill Arnold <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Friday, 16 Apr 2004 08:34:25 -0700 (PDT)
Subject: 15.0888 The Murder of Gonzago
Comment:        Re: SHK 15.0888 The Murder of Gonzago

D Bloom writes, "The origin of the Ghost is unknowable without some kind
of special revelation.  Shakespeare does not bother about that because
it is not important enough to bother about."

Well, a ghost is a ghost is a ghost just as a spirit is a spirit is a
spirit.

The spirit of Hamlet's father begins the play with information no one
could know except, according to the tale told, the murderer or the
murderee [sic], and lays down the gauntlet of information for Hamlet the
son to pick up and end the play.  The play confirms the spiritual nature
of the spirit inasmuch as swords had no effect upon him, in other words
he was not corporeal.  He is a spirit.  The nature of the tale told by
the spirit of Hamlet's father is clear, thus is the purpose of the
gauntlet laid down, and thus is the role of the son.  It is an
Information Age [sic] play!  The dichotomy of the message is crystal
clearly between black and white, good and evil, and any theatre-goer,
even a young child, had no trouble determining that Claudius was evil
and Hamlet the son was good. Ask any kid about that apparition at the
start of the play and the unfolding events, and you will get a black and
white, good and evil answer every time.  Typical of Will S, and fits his
canon that the city of God rights the ship of State, always!

Bill Arnold
http://www.cwru.edu/affil/edis/scholars/arnold.htm

[5]-------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Alan Horn <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Friday, 16 Apr 2004 15:38:24 EDT
Subject: 15.0888 The Murder of Gonzago
Comment:        Re: SHK 15.0888 The Murder of Gonzago

I just came across a reference to a book that would relate to recent
discussion on this thread: Stephen Greenblatt's Hamlet in Purgatory.

Alan H

[6]-------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Jay Feldman <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Friday, 16 Apr 2004 14:19:24 -1000
Subject: 15.0888 The Murder of Gonzago
Comment:        Re: SHK 15.0888 The Murder of Gonzago

Don Bloom says: ...The origin of the Ghost is unknowable without some

 >kind of special revelation. Shakespeare does not bother about that
 >because it is not important enough to bother about. What is important is
 >whether Claudius is guilty of fratricide / regicide along with incest.
 >The ghost claims he is. Claudius confirms it. Hamlet's duty is clear.

Before nail guns, I once spent a month assisting a master carpenter.
Never once in that month did I see him miss hit a nail. It was a
pleasure to watch him work. Likewise, I believe Don Bloom has hit this
nail full square. David Bishop's remarks were dead on too.

Thanks - Jay Feldman

_______________________________________________________________
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New Henry V Film Coming Out Soon

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 15.0889  Friday, 16 April 2004

[1]     From:   Dan Smith <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Thursday, 15 Apr 2004 13:26:06 +0100
        Subj:   RE: SHK 15.0871 New Henry V Film Coming Out Soon

[2]     From:   Frank Whigham <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Thursday, 15 Apr 2004 09:30:38 -0500
        Subj:   Re: SHK 15.0881 New Henry V Film Coming Out Soon

[3]     From:   Richard Burt <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Thursday, 15 Apr 2004 14:30:21 -0400
        Subj:   Re: SHK 15.0881 New Henry V Film Coming Out Soon


[1]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Dan Smith <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Thursday, 15 Apr 2004 13:26:06 +0100
Subject: 15.0871 New Henry V Film Coming Out Soon
Comment:        RE: SHK 15.0871 New Henry V Film Coming Out Soon

I defer to Don Bloom's scholarship and I concede that an Elizabethan
audience used to public executions featuring theatrically staged
evisceration may have been more prepared to admire as resolute strength
what an overeducated modern moraliser might call ruthless cruelty.
However, I am far from convinced that Shakespeare has unalloyed
admiration for his strong men. When I read Marlowe I think I detect an
admiration for his over-reaching heroes that I don't find in Shakespeare.

 >Shakespeare presents true fighting men as admirable until
 >they do something (such as murdering a king, a wife or a friend) that
 >causes their downfall

It is certainly true that men like Falstaff, Sir Andrew Aguecheek or
Henry VI who are not prepared to fight are shown as emasculated,
contemptible figures. However, surely the point is that the major
fighting "heroes" in Shakespeare (Macbeth, Othello, Achilles) do cross
that line and valour doesn't equal virtue in Shakespeare.  Even in
comedies such as Alls Well, Bertram is shown as both courageous and a
complete weasel. Shakespeare's Richard III is no coward either, despite
his nocturnal fears before Bosworth.

I think that part of the reason that Henry V is interesting is that his
status as hero or tyrant is ambiguous. Hal can be played as a hero by
cutting the execution of the prisoners (which might not have troubled
the Elizabethans), suggesting that the threats at Harfleur are merely
bluff and downplay or cut the Duke of Burgundy's speech about the
ravages of war on the land (V.ii). Equally, the NT Henry V last year
left Adrian Lester with the difficult job of engaging the audience
playing a hollow fixer. I think perhaps an ideal production might divide
the audience's opinion about Hal (much as we are divided in this
discussion perhaps). I think what rattled the bars of this moraliser,
and perhaps some others, was the initial likeness of George W with Henry
V as though Hal was an uncomplicated hero.  The issue of Henry V (but
not Troilus) to troops as though it was an unalloyed martial argument
bothers me also.

I agree with Don Bloom that Prince Hal and George W. Bush have almost
nothing in common. George W recent speech "We are carrying out a
decision that has already been made and will not change" again reminds
me rather more of "The bow is bent and drawn; make from the shaft" (Lear
I,1.151) and leaves me with the same sickening anticipation of what
follows.

Dan Smith

[2]-------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Frank Whigham <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Thursday, 15 Apr 2004 09:30:38 -0500
Subject: 15.0881 New Henry V Film Coming Out Soon
Comment:        Re: SHK 15.0881 New Henry V Film Coming Out Soon

A post that instantiates the kind of thinking it pillories. Ho hum indeed.

Frank Whigham

 >>People nowadays, especially of the class that constitutes the highly
 >>educated, are often antagonistic toward this type. They / we may be
 >>morally right in holding this antagonism
 >
 >They may also be morally wrong. They may even be . . .impaired. Their
 >"relevant" "education" has, essentially, cored out their heads and left
 >only a set of inane and unquestioned imperatives, chief among which that
 >they are the good people, and that no matter how nit-witted their
 >positions, they are "morally right." Up the Revolution, free the people,
 >save the whales, yada yada yada. The gulag cometh.

[3]-------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Richard Burt <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Thursday, 15 Apr 2004 14:30:21 -0400
Subject: 15.0881 New Henry V Film Coming Out Soon
Comment:        Re: SHK 15.0881 New Henry V Film Coming Out Soon

Given the total fiasco in Iraq, I wonder if new comparisons between
Henry and Bush will be made--George senior will be HV, while W will be
the moronic HVI who lost it all.

_______________________________________________________________
S H A K S P E R: The Global Shakespeare Discussion List
Hardy M. Cook, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The S H A K S P E R Web Site <http://www.shaksper.net>

DISCLAIMER: Although SHAKSPER is a moderated discussion list, the
opinions expressed on it are the sole property of the poster, and the
editor assumes no responsibility for them.

CFP: Renaissance Studies and New Technologies

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 15.0887  Friday, 16 April 2004

[1]     From:   Geralyn Horton <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Thursday, 15 Apr 2004 09:32:44 -0400
        Subj:   Re: SHK 15.0874 CFP: Renaissance Studies and New Technologies

[2]     From:   Al Magary <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Thursday, 15 Apr 2004 16:08:16 -0700
        Subj:   Re: SHK 15.0874 CFP: Renaissance Studies and New Technologies


[1]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Geralyn Horton <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Thursday, 15 Apr 2004 09:32:44 -0400
Subject: 15.0874 CFP: Renaissance Studies and New Technologies
Comment:        Re: SHK 15.0874 CFP: Renaissance Studies and New Technologies

I clicked on the link RSA link in this message (to discover whether it
was Cambridge Massachusetts or in England) and the web site that came up
was that of a real estate agency.

[2]-------------------------------------------------------------
From:           Al Magary <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Thursday, 15 Apr 2004 16:08:16 -0700
Subject: 15.0874 CFP: Renaissance Studies and New Technologies
Comment:        Re: SHK 15.0874 CFP: Renaissance Studies and New Technologies

 >> http://www.r-s-a.org/

takes you to a real estate service site.

Renaissance Society of America is actually at
http://www.rsa.org/

Interesting that an organization with "America" in its name announces
its annual meeting in Cambridge.  But which one?  Seek and ye shall
find:  UK.

Cheers,
Al Magary

_______________________________________________________________
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DISCLAIMER: Although SHAKSPER is a moderated discussion list, the
opinions expressed on it are the sole property of the poster, and the
editor assumes no responsibility for them.

The Murder of Gonzago

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 15.0888  Friday, 16 April 2004

[1]     From:   D Bloom <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Thursday, 15 Apr 2004 08:11:35 -0500
        Subj:   RE: SHK 15.0876 The Murder of Gonzago

[2]     From:   David Bishop <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Thursday, 15 Apr 2004 16:25:50 -0400
        Subj:   Re: SHK 15.0876 The Murder of Gonzago

[3]     From:   HR Greenberg <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
        Date:   Friday, 16 Apr 2004 04:10:46 EDT
        Subj:   Re: SHK 15.0873 The Murder of Gonzago


[1]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From:           D Bloom <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Thursday, 15 Apr 2004 08:11:35 -0500
Subject: 15.0876 The Murder of Gonzago
Comment:        RE: SHK 15.0876 The Murder of Gonzago

Edmund Taft writes

 >The fundamental question is not
 >Claudius's guilt but the nature of the Ghost.
 >
 >Is this a good or bad spirit? If good, then revenge is God's will and
 >should be carried out. If bad, then, well, the opposite.

I have been around this question with ET (as have others) before. I
think the opposite. The origin of the Ghost is unknowable without some
kind of special revelation. Shakespeare does not bother about that
because it is not important enough to bother about. What is important is
whether Claudius is guilty of fratricide / regicide along with incest.
The ghost claims he is. Claudius confirms it. Hamlet's duty is clear.

Most assume that since the ghost is truthful about the guilt of
Claudius, it is truthful about its residence in Purgatory and its
release from there by the will of God. Since vengeance belongs to God,
according to Scripture, Hamlet's revenge on Claudius is no longer a
personal (and thus forbidden) act, but a part of Divine Justice, a
purging of the state of Denmark of its rottenness.

It makes not the slightest difference whether this is good theology,
either Protestant or Catholic. It's a good story. It has to square with
the feelings and beliefs of the general public not with the interpreters
St. Thomas or Calvin. It does so, even today.

There is always a vast body of generalized belief (moral, theological,
mythological, whatever) that fails to coincide with official doctrines
of church or state. Sometimes it flatly contradicts them. But it is in
this body that the successful dramatist works.

Cheers,
don

[2]-------------------------------------------------------------
From:           David Bishop <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Thursday, 15 Apr 2004 16:25:50 -0400
Subject: 15.0876 The Murder of Gonzago
Comment:        Re: SHK 15.0876 The Murder of Gonzago

Thomas Larque makes what seem to me some sensible points about the
relationship between drama and theology. I think many critics today
vastly overestimate the relevance of the Catholic-Protestant conflict to
Shakespeare, and especially to Hamlet.

The ghost seems partly like an escaped prisoner, who has to be back by
dawn-or else what? We don't know, but we might suspect it will be horrible.

I think to call him a Catholic ghost is entirely misleading. The ghost
is the ghost of Hamlet's father. He imposes a duty to revenge on Hamlet,
a duty according with an ethos of honor and revenge that stretches back
into the mists of prehistory and persists today. If you don't see the
dynamic of honor and revenge operating in families and workplaces-or
even this list-and need something more lethal, try turning on the
Sopranos, or taking a tour of the middle east.

One major point about this ethos is that it is opposed by the Christian
prohibition of personal revenge. If the ethos of revenge were not so
strong, and so destructive, Christianity would not have needed to be
invented. This prohibition is not Catholic or Protestant, but Christian.
It is what Catholicism and Protestantism have in common. It is
incomparably more important in this play than any points of doctrinal
conflict, over say purgatory.

Purgatory is not named, but referred to obliquely in the word "purged"
and the conditions of the ghost's imprisonment. Yes, this does sound
like purgatory, but the censors left it in, and their reason for doing
so could hardly have been the thought that it satirized Catholicism.
They just didn't make much of it because in the context of the play
there's not much to make.  A vague idea of purgatory lets the ghost out,
ghosts are mysterious anyway, and the main point about the ghost is that
he tells Hamlet to do what, considering the truth of the murder, he
would feel, in  a part of himself, obligated to do anyway.

In another part of himself he is subject to a Christian
inhibition-unlike the ghost, who aside from having come from hell to
speak of horrors shows no sign of a Christian conscience. Leaving
Gertrude to heaven may sound Christian, but if it is, why wouldn't he
tell Hamlet to leave Claudius to heaven too? It's ironic that the
ghost's speaking of the horrors of hell would tend to vivify Hamlet's
Christian fear of damnation and work against his taking revenge. Without
this reminder he might charge ahead as thoughtlessly as Laertes, casting
conscience and grace into the pit and "daring" damnation.

Wringing all the logical possibilities out of particular lines, and then
claiming that these are centrally important to the play, is a common
critical method. Sometimes it can turn out to be true. Try, for example,
examining the meaning and implications of "I dare damnation", or having
a "craven scruple", or being made a coward by your conscience.

Best wishes,
David Bishop

[3]-------------------------------------------------------------
From:           HR Greenberg <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Friday, 16 Apr 2004 04:10:46 EDT
Subject: 15.0873 The Murder of Gonzago
Comment:        Re: SHK 15.0873 The Murder of Gonzago

what interests me about this passage is not the issue of purgatory, but
the ghost's statement that he could 'a tale unfold' about the
afterworld, yet another instance when a dying or dead man is given
powers of prophecy or revelation which are forestalled, in the Ghost's
example, perhaps by the fact that he is constrained by higher powers to
speak of his purgatorial term.

Hamlet upon his death talks about 'that fell sergeant death" whose
arrest constrains his ability not only to tell his own story, but I
believe impliitly any revelation of what's to come.

One also remembers that Hotspur, dying, voices the knowledge of similar
powers that give him the ability to prophecy but not the time.

Not being a scholar of Shakespeare (film yes), I wonder if this point
has been addressed at all. I would like to know more about any relevant
material.

I cannot see how any audience member would see Hamlet as a figure of
ridicule and if memory serves accounts from its first performance
forward speak of the observer being profoundly moved. No serious
scholarship I know of deems this so. There are no clowns as such in the
play -- although Hamlet famously cries down their role in his speech on
playing. Polonius, of course, is ridiculed by Hamlet, and acts and
speaks like a fool at times. I always found it peculiarly poignant and
quite in Hamlet's volatile but thoughtful character that, after
mercilessly satirizing Polonius, he bids the players -- or is it R and G
-- to 'use him well'.

Interesting discussion. HR Greenberg MD

_______________________________________________________________
S H A K S P E R: The Global Shakespeare Discussion List
Hardy M. Cook, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
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DISCLAIMER: Although SHAKSPER is a moderated discussion list, the
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Stylometrics

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 15.0886  Friday, 16 April 2004

From:           Mac Jackson <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date:           Friday, 16 Apr 2004 15:40:18 +1200
Subject: 15.0878 Stylometrics
Comment:        RE: SHK 15.0878 Stylometrics

How silly of me to misspell Terence Hawkes's name. I apologize.

Mac Jackson

-----Original Message-----
 >Does stylometrics really represent a new dawn?
 >
 >'our analysis, which has hitherto been qualitative, must become
 >quantitative; we must cease to be empirical and become scientific; in
 >criticism as in other matters, the test that decides between science and
 >empiricism is this: "Can you say, not only of what kind, but how much?
 >If you cannot weigh, measure, number your results, however you may be
 >convinced yourself, you must not hope to convince others . . .  you are
 >merely a guesser'.
 >
 >Thus the Shakespearean critic the Reverend Frederick G. Fleay, leading
 >advocate of style and metrical tests, one of the most diligent of the
 >'disintegrators' and unsurprisingly nicknamed 'the industrious flea'.
 >The occasion was the inaugural meeting, in 1874, of the New Shakspere
 >Society devoted to the study of the Bard . . .  'in this Victorian time,
 >when our geniuses of science are so wresting her secrets from nature as
 >to make our days memorable forever'.
 >
 >Ho hum. In such a context, does anyone else find it heartening that avid
 >seekers after textual accuracy such as Jonathan Hope and Mac Jackson
 >should continue to believe that there is a contributor to SHAKSPER named
 >'Terrence Hawkes'?
 >
 >Terence Hawkes

_______________________________________________________________
S H A K S P E R: The Global Shakespeare Discussion List
Hardy M. Cook, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The S H A K S P E R Web Site <http://www.shaksper.net>

DISCLAIMER: Although SHAKSPER is a moderated discussion list, the
opinions expressed on it are the sole property of the poster, and the
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