2006

The International Spread of Shakespeare

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 17.1027  Tuesday, 21 November 2006

From: 		Hilde Slinger <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date: 		Monday, 20 Nov 2006 17:03:28 +0200
Subject: 	The International Spread of Shakespeare: 2nd Call for 
Papers

7th Triennial Congress of the Shakespeare Society of Southern Africa:
24-27 June 2007: Rhodes University, Grahamstown:
THE INTERNATIONAL SPREAD OF SHAKESPEARE

http:www.ru.ac.za/shakespeare

We look forward to receiving responses and thank you for giving our notice 
your positive attention.

Hilde Slinger
(Convenor)

SECOND CALL FOR PAPERS
"THE INTERNATIONAL SPREAD OF SHAKESPEARE"

SEVENTH TRIENNIAL CONGRESS OF THE SHAKESPEARE SOCIETY OF SOUTHERN SOUTH 
AFRICA

June 24 - 27, 2007

Rhodes University, Grahamstown
Eastern Province, South Africa

Conference website: www.ru.ac.za/shakespeare

UPDATE
Applications for the Congress are rolling in.  Please don't delay your 
submission.  Accommodation is at a premium and we want our delegates to 
get the best!

Several scholars have pleaded for a stream in the conference simply for 
the discussion of Shakespeare.  This is possibly a reaction to a plethora 
of 'themed' conferences in recent years.  We are happy to oblige. 
Scholars wishing to present on aspects of Shakespearean interpretation or 
textual scholarship are now in from the cold!  We will accept such papers 
on merit until that strand in the programme is full.

In case you are wavering, here is a tribute (unsolicited) from Chris 
Wortham of the University of Western Australia, who gave a plenary paper 
at the last Congress (2003):

The Congress was a great success from all points of view.

The Shakespeare Society of Southern Africa is a vibrant body and seems set 
fair to flourish.  The intellectual quality and spread of papers gave us 
so much to think about and learn from.  The delegates were all such 
positive people and the atmosphere through-out was quite joyously 
convivial.  I have seldom attended a conference so free of strife and 
cross-currents of in-fighting!  No doubt you, your Executive Committee and 
your team of conference organisers must take the credit for this. Such 
good things don't happen by chance or accident!  Of course, it was a great 
joy and privilege to be a keynote speaker at such a gathering.

We are pleased to announce that our Plenary Speakers have been finalised:

Graham Bradshaw (University of Chuo, Japan)
Thomas Cartelli (Muhlenberg College, USA)
John Gillies (University of Essex, United Kingdom)

Please take a look at the Pumba Private Game Reserve website where we will 
be going for our Congress game experience and dinner. 
http://www.pumbagamereserve.co.za/   This is an exceptional opportunity!

If you have queries regarding your visit to the Congress, the Arts 
Festival or South Africa in general, do not hesitate to contact the 
Congress team.

Papers of 25 minutes duration are invited on the following or related 
topics:

How Shakespeare uses nation, geography and territory
Shakespeare's impact beyond England in his own time
Connections between Shakespeare and international trade, now and then
The impact of 'travelling Shakespeare' (tours, television and film) on 
local theatre and culture
Indigenous Shakespeare outside Britain: fact or fiction?
Is electronic Shakespeare global Shakespeare?

New conference strand: vii) Interpreting Shakespeare (see announcement 
above)

Abstracts of no more than 300 words should be sent to the conference 
convenor, Ms Hild Slinger (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.) to reach her by no later 
than 31 January 2007.

Those who wish to coordinate special interest sessions should notify the 
convenor of the proposed topic and participants.  For further information, 
and to answer any queries, please contact the convenor at the email 
address:  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., or Ms Jenny King: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. and Ms 
Carol Leff: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

PRELIMINARY CONFERENCE FORMAT

Sunday 24 June
Flights met (bus times for transfer from Port Elizabeth Airport to 
Grahamstown to be announced)
14h00-16h00   Registration and settling in

Monday 25 June
08h30-10h00 Registration
09h00-10h00 Shakespeare Society AGM
10h00-10h30 Orientation and Meet & Greet Tea
10h30	CONFERENCE OPENING
  and Plenary Address followed by papers
18h30	Welcome Cocktail Party

Tuesday 26 June
08h30-12h00  Morning  session: Plenary Address, papers and seminars
12h15	Gamepark and conference dinner (into the evening) onwards

Wednesday 27 June
08h30	Morning and afternoon: Papers & Seminars
19h00	Conference Show

Thursday 28
Delegates not staying for the Arts Festival depart after Breakfast 
(Airport bus departure times to be announced)

NATIONAL ARTS FESTIVAL (28 June - 8 July 2007)
Delegates are reminded that the conference is arranged to back onto the 
National Arts Festival, South Africa's premier arts events which takes 
place annually in Grahamstown.  Please take the opportunity to enjoy this 
amazing event while you are in South Africa.

Conference and Festival Accommodation
Because of the National Arts Festival, delegates are advised to secure 
their accommodation promptly so as to ensure proximity to the conference 
venue.

B&B INFORMATION AND ADVICE is available from the conference organisers.
Budget accommodation in RHODES UNIVERSITY RESIDENCES is available from 25 
June.

Congress Convenor
Shakespeare Society of Southern Africa
C/o ISEA, Rhodes University
P O Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140
Republic of South Africa.

_______________________________________________________________
S H A K S P E R: The Global Shakespeare Discussion List
Hardy M. Cook, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The S H A K S P E R Web Site <http://www.shaksper.net>

DISCLAIMER: Although SHAKSPER is a moderated discussion list, the opinions 
expressed on it are the sole property of the poster, and the editor 
assumes no responsibility for them.

Russian 'Twelfth Night

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 17.1026  Monday, 20 November 2006

From: 		David Kathman <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date: 		Saturday, 18 Nov 2006 20:13:05 -0600
Subject: 17.1012 Russian 'Twelfth Night'
Comment: 	Re: SHK 17.1012 Russian 'Twelfth Night'

Alfredo Michel Modenessi wrote:

>What my Argentine colleague probably means is sur-titles,
>"the kind of ribbon (she means a sort of electronic scrolling
>device, I guess) that is also used for opera". Interesting to
>know that in the magnificent city of Buenos Aires, one of
>the greatest places on earth to see good theatre all year round,
>good Shakespeares included, they should have used the original
>text for that and not the work of one of the may capable
>translators currently working in Argentina.

Actually, this production is using not the original text, but a Russian 
translation.  They're using the supertitles here in Chicago as well.  (See 
the description on the Chicago Shakespeare website, at 
http://www.chicagoshakes.com/productionDetail.aspx?id=4500)

Dave Kathman
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

_______________________________________________________________
S H A K S P E R: The Global Shakespeare Discussion List
Hardy M. Cook, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The S H A K S P E R Web Site <http://www.shaksper.net>

DISCLAIMER: Although SHAKSPER is a moderated discussion list, the opinions 
expressed on it are the sole property of the poster, and the editor 
assumes no responsibility for them.

Timon of Athens Crux

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 17.1024  Monday, 20 November 2006

[1] 	From: 	Steve Sohmer <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
 	Date: 	Saturday, 18 Nov 2006 12:59:41 EST
 	Subj: 	Re: SHK 17.1011 Timon of Athens Crux

[2] 	From: 	John W. Kennedy <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
 	Date: 	Saturday, 18 Nov 2006 14:42:45 -0500
 	Subj: 	Re: SHK 17.1011 Timon of Athens Crux

[3] 	From: 	Peter Bridgman <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
 	Date: 	Sunday, 19 Nov 2006 15:25:31 -0000
 	Subj: 	Re: SHK 17.1011 Timon of Athens Crux


[1]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From: 		Steve Sohmer <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date: 		Saturday, 18 Nov 2006 12:59:41 EST
Subject: 17.1011 Timon of Athens Crux
Comment: 	Re: SHK 17.1011 Timon of Athens Crux

Dear Larry Weiss et al,

I see no need of emendation in this passage from TIM. The Sun and Moon are 
siblings of divergent fortunes, i.e. the lesser shines by the other's 
light ... which theme runs through the piece to the final Pasturer and his 
hungry brother ... who departs when the larder is bare.

Steve

[2]-------------------------------------------------------------
From: 		John W. Kennedy <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date: 		Saturday, 18 Nov 2006 14:42:45 -0500
Subject: 17.1011 Timon of Athens Crux
Comment: 	Re: SHK 17.1011 Timon of Athens Crux

Larry Weiss <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>

>At the beginning of the long scene before Timon's cave (IV.iii), Timon 
has a soliloquy which begins:
>
>   O blessed breeding Sunday, draw from the earth
>   Rotten humidity: Below thy Sisters Orbe
>   Infect the ayre.  Twinn'd Brothers of one wombe.
>   Whose procreation, residence, and birth,
>   Scarce is dividant; touch them with severall fortunes,
>   The greater scornes the lesser.  Not Nature
>   (To whom all sores lay siege) can bear great Fortune
>   But by contempt of Nature.
>   Raise me this Begger, and deny't that Lord,
>   The Senators shall beare contempt hereditary,
>   The Begger Native Honor.
>   It is the Pastour, lards the Brothers sides,
>   The want that makes him leave: ....
>
>Most editors emend "Brothers" to "rother's" or "wether's" and
>"leave" to "lean"; so that the last two lines mean simply that a
>beast is fattened by forage and starves when there is none, hardly
>a striking revelation or one that contributes to the point Timon
>is making.  It occurs to me that the correct reading is precisely
>as set out in F1 (revising only spelling and pointing).  The sense
>would be that one brother will depart from another when the other
>ceases to offer wealth.  This fits the theme of the play and the
>notions that Timon is expressing.  Any thoughts?

But why? For the sake of the literalism of "brother" (an imperfect 
literalism, anyway, since not one of Timon's betrayers is Timon's parent's 
son), you're introducing the bizarre image of the "brother" growing fat 
off the pasture. "Rother" or "wether", on the other hand, make perfect 
sense as an image, and still possess an obvious reference to Timon's 
situation.

[3]-------------------------------------------------------------
From: 		Peter Bridgman <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date: 		Sunday, 19 Nov 2006 15:25:31 -0000
Subject: 17.1011 Timon of Athens Crux
Comment: 	Re: SHK 17.1011 Timon of Athens Crux

Larry Weiss writes ...

>Most editors emend "Brothers" to "rother's" or "wether's" and "leave" to 
"lean" ...

The Oxford editors seem to agree with you about "brothers", but not about 
"leave".  I must say I agree with them.  Which of the following makes the 
more sense ... ?

It is the pasture that lards the brother's sides,
The want that makes him lean.

It is the pasture that lards the brother's sides,
The want that makes him leave.

Peter Bridgman

_______________________________________________________________
S H A K S P E R: The Global Shakespeare Discussion List
Hardy M. Cook, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The S H A K S P E R Web Site <http://www.shaksper.net>

DISCLAIMER: Although SHAKSPER is a moderated discussion list, the opinions 
expressed on it are the sole property of the poster, and the editor 
assumes no responsibility for them.

Shakespeare's Birthday

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 17.1025  Monday, 20 November 2006

[1] 	From: 	John W. Kennedy <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
 	Date: 	Saturday, 18 Nov 2006 11:49:00 -0500
 	Subj: 	Re: SHK 17.1013 Shakespeare's Birthday

[2] 	From: 	Jim Harmon <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
 	Date: 	Saturday, 18 Nov 2006 11:01:27 -0600
 	Subj: 	RE: SHK 17.1013 Shakespeare's Birthday

[3] 	From: 	Alan Jones <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
 	Date: 	Saturday, 18 Nov 2006 17:51:11 -0000
 	Subj: 	Re: SHK 17.1013 Shakespeare's Birthday

[4] 	From: 	Peter Farey <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
 	Date: 	Saturday, 18 Nov 2006 20:49:52 -0000
 	Subj: 	Re: SHK 17.1013 Shakespeare's Birthday

[5] 	From: 	Peter Bridgman <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
 	Date: 	Sunday, 19 Nov 2006 19:38:02 -0000
 	Subj: 	Re: SHK 17.1013 Shakespeare's Birthday


[1]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From: 		John W. Kennedy <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date: 		Saturday, 18 Nov 2006 11:49:00 -0500
Subject: 17.1013 Shakespeare's Birthday
Comment: 	Re: SHK 17.1013 Shakespeare's Birthday

Harry Connors <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>

>In either case, the baby would have been baptized again by
>the minister and in the church.

Absolutely not, unless the minister suspected that John was so 
feeble-minded as not to be capable of forming the intent to baptize (which 
I think we can rule out). Even then, he would have used the conditional 
form, "If thou be not Baptized al ready, N. I baptise the in the name of 
the father, and of the Sonne, and of the holy Ghoste. Amen."

Otherwise, there would have been a formal "certification", but not a 
re-baptism.

[2]-------------------------------------------------------------
From: 		Jim Harmon <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date: 		Saturday, 18 Nov 2006 11:01:27 -0600
Subject: 17.1013 Shakespeare's Birthday
Comment: 	RE: SHK 17.1013 Shakespeare's Birthday

It's probably more than I can comprehend, but it may be necessary to take 
into consideration the 1582 and 1752 calendar changes discussed on 
http://www.ancestry.com/learn/library/article.aspx?article=3358 and 
http://www.ancestry.com/library/view/ancmag/3384.asp. They might at least 
affect day-of-week calculations, depending on the accuracy of the 
perpetual or other calendar consulted. This may not even impact the 
current discussion (as I said, it's probably more than I can comprehend 
<g>), but I did want to mention it as an interesting aside.

[3]-------------------------------------------------------------
From: 		Alan Jones <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date: 		Saturday, 18 Nov 2006 17:51:11 -0000
Subject: 17.1013 Shakespeare's Birthday
Comment: 	Re: SHK 17.1013 Shakespeare's Birthday

Peter Bridgman <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>

  [...]

>William's baptismal entry (plus the
>one above) reads as follows ...
>
>22   Johannes filius William Brooks
>26   Gulielmus filius Johannes Shakspere
>
>The 26th was a Wednesday.  The 25th was St Marks day, an inauspicious
>day for baptisms as altars and crosses were draped in black.  This
>means that the 23rd (St George's day) or the 24th are the most likely
>days for William's birth. [...]

Why would altars and crosses draped in black on St Mark's Day? (That is, 
if the parish church had any altars or crosses to drape: I assume, perhaps 
wrongly, that by 1564 the chancel had been reordered in the Protestant 
fashion with a bare wooden table set east-west and its crosses removed).

Alan Jones
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

[4]-------------------------------------------------------------
From: 		Peter Farey <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date: 		Saturday, 18 Nov 2006 20:49:52 -0000
Subject: 17.1013 Shakespeare's Birthday
Comment: 	Re: SHK 17.1013 Shakespeare's Birthday

Thanks to those who responded to my comments on this.

Peter Bridgman doesn't see why I suggested that the baptism on the 26th 
April would have been at home, as "John and Mary only lived a few yards 
from Holy Trinity church."

My point was really not that they would have been *unable* to go where 
"the most nombre of people may come together", which was - if not "a few 
yards" from their home - certainly less than half a mile away, but that 
there were good reasons to avoid going at such a time.

He continues:

>The 26th was a Wednesday. The 25th was St Marks day, an inauspicious
>day for baptisms as altars and crosses were draped in black.  This
>means that the 23rd (St George's day) or the 24th are the most likely
>days for William's birth.  The 23rd if an exhausted Mary needed a day
>in bed before she was up, the 24th if she didn't.

My suggestion was that, being baptized on the 26th, he was probably born 
the day before. Whilst the 25th April may well have been considered an 
inauspicious date for baptism, I doubt whether this had any effect on 
whether anyone was born on that date, which, being my own birthday, is 
something that I have a personal reason to be quite glad about!

Harry Connors sees "no reason to reject the traditional April 23rd date 
for Shakespeare's birth based on the possibility that he might have been 
baptized at home." But my reason for considering that this date might be 
too early has nothing to do with where it occurred, but upon the need for 
babies to be baptized as soon as possible after birth.

All I can say is that the words of 1559 Book of Common Prayer certainly 
give the impression that baptisms would occur *either* in church on 
Sundays or holy days, *or* at home on other days. Here's what it says:

   "It appeareth by auncient writers, that the Sacrament of Baptisme in
   the old old tyme, was not commonly Ministred, but at two times in the
   yeare, at Easter and Whytsontide, at which tymes it was openly
   ministred in the presence of al the congregacion: which custome (now
   being growen out of use,) although it can not for many consideracions
   bee well restored agayne, yet it is thought good to folow the same as
   nere as conveniently may be. Wherfore the people are to be admonished,
   that it is most convenient that Baptisme should not be ministred but
   upon Sondayes, and other holy dayes, when the most nombre of people
   may come together, ... Nevertheles (if necessitie so require) children
   may at al tymes be Baptized at home."

Harry also says that "A home baptism, if it occurred, isn't what is 
recorded in the church records" in which case, where were those baptisms 
at home, which were fully permissible according to the Prayer Book, to be 
recorded?

Peter Farey

[5]-------------------------------------------------------------
From: 		Peter Bridgman <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date: 		Sunday, 19 Nov 2006 19:38:02 -0000
Subject: 17.1013 Shakespeare's Birthday
Comment: 	Re: SHK 17.1013 Shakespeare's Birthday

Harry Connors writes ...

>If John baptized his son because John was a Catholic, he
>is hardly likely to have mentioned the fact to the minister.

John and Mary would not have baptised their son at home, for one very good 
reason.  This is that in Stratford in 1564 they would have had no need to. 
John Bretchgirdle, the vicar at Holy Trinity was "a humanist scholar with 
Catholic sympathies, whose curate had drawn up Catholic wills and who had 
performed old-style baptisms for parishioners" (Michael Wood, p. 30)

Five years later in 1569 there was a "rising in the North" by Catholic 
forces led by the Earl of Northumberland.  Their aim was to put Mary Queen 
of Scots on the throne.  After the rising was quashed by government 
forces, the Stratford vicar John Bretchgirdle, his curate and the 
Stratford schoolmaster all left their posts at the same time.  Wood writes 
that "the curate was pointedly described in the town minutes as 
'fugitivus', a fugitive who had apparently sympathised with the rising" 
(p. 46).  In the following year (1570) the Stratford corporation was 
ordered to remove the stained glass windows from the Guild Chapel and in 
1571 the Catholic copes and vestments that Bretchgirdle had worn were 
finally sold off.

What this effectively means is that thirteen years after Elizabeth's 
accession, Holy Trinity Stratford finally conformed and became a 
Protestant church.  This is presumably why William and Anne's 1582 
marriage was in Temple Grafton, rather than Stratford.  The priest in 
Temple Grafton was of the old faith.

Getting back to the 1564 baptism, Wood suggests that "William was probably 
named after his godfather who may have been William Smith, a haberdasher 
and Henley Street neighbour" (p.30).  William Smith was most likely 
another Catholic.  At a council meeting in 1586 John Shakespeare lost his 
position as an alderman, along with John Wheeler, another old Catholic, 
because they "doth not come to the halls when they be warned".  At the 
same meeting William Smith refused to serve any longer and left the 
corporation.

William Smith's name was to appear in John Bretchgirdle's will.  A number 
of books (Aesop, Cicero, Sallust) were bequeathed to the five sons of 
ex-alderman William Smith.

Peter Bridgman

_______________________________________________________________
S H A K S P E R: The Global Shakespeare Discussion List
Hardy M. Cook, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The S H A K S P E R Web Site <http://www.shaksper.net>

DISCLAIMER: Although SHAKSPER is a moderated discussion list, the opinions 
expressed on it are the sole property of the poster, and the editor 
assumes no responsibility for them.

New Shakespeare Search Engine Launches

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 17.1023  Monday, 20 November 2006

From: 		Martin Mueller <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date: 		Saturday, 18 Nov 2006 16:42:08 -0600
Subject: 17.1016 New Shakespeare Search Engine Launches
Comment: 	Re: SHK 17.1016 New Shakespeare Search Engine Launches

I read with interest the announcement about the new Shakespeare tool 
called Shakespeare Searched. Very nice it is. Somewhere, I believe, in 
Gilbert & Sullivan somebody says that in this world and age you have to 
blow your own trumpet, because nobody else will. So may I suggest that for 
some students of Shakespeare, and certainly for students in AP courses or 
colleges Northwestern's WordHoard is a superior tool 
(http://wordhoard.northwestern.edu), and like Shakespeare Searched, it is 
free.  It is superior for several reasons:

1. It is based on a text that, while not perfect, is much better than the 
Moby Shakespeare, and--at least in its sequence of words--differs only 
trivially from Arden, Bevington, or Riverside
2. It is much more explicit about what it lets you do
3.It lets you do a lot more

Shakespeare Searched apparently uses collocation statistics, and it does 
so in an ingenious way. If you look for 'blood' in Macbeth, you get a 
standard concordance, but you also get another list of suggested words or 
'topics'. You are not told why these words are topics, but if you look a 
little more closely you see some algorithm at work. The algorithm 
identifies words that by some criterion occur more often around blood than 
you would expect. How much more often?  You're not told.

In WordHoard, you can look for collocates of 'blood' in Macbeth, and you 
can define the collocates quite precisely by specifying a distance of 
words before and after, And when you see the results you see the 
likelihoods associated with it. A little more work, to be sure, but a lot 
more transparent. You see the evidence for the proposition that in this 
context word X is a disproportionately frequent companion of word Y 
(Remember J. Firth: you shall know a word by the company it keeps).

Frequency and salience are not the same. There can be frequency without 
salience and salience without frequency. Having the numbers helps making 
that point.

There is a lot more you can do with WordHoard than with Shakespeare 
Searched. Take 'blood'. Is it a disproportionally common word in Macbeth 
in the context of the other tragedies? Actually it isn't.  Its relative 
frequency is twice as high, but by statistical measure that is not 
particularly impressive. 'Bloody' ranks higher. We may have salience 
without frequency here.

What are the words that are disproportionately frequent in Macbeth when 
compared with the other tragedies? An odd but telling list (in descending 
order): that, the, knock, tyrant, hail, we, king, fear, wood, sleep, 
trouble. Don't ask me about 'that' and 'the' (although there may be 
interesting answers), but the remaining words certainly tell a story.

The most powerful feature of WordHoard, however, is almost certainly its 
extraordinarily flexible concordance tool. You can look up a word, and if 
it is a common word, you can group and sort the word by different 
criteria. Looking up 'blood' you see at once that the top eight works 
include six histories, Macbeth and Julius Caesar. From which you gather 
that in the histories 'blood' is probably both dynastic and gory, but that 
in Julius Caesar and Macbeth it is mainly gory. And that's an interesting 
pointer to the deep relationship between those two plays. If you look for 
'sad' and group results by play and scene, you see that eight of its nine 
occurrences in the Merchant of Venice are in 1.1. Very telling.

WordHoard expects a little more work from users. But it does a lot more 
for them, and wherever it uses statistical procedures to foreground 
features, it scrupulously gives you the evidence for why it does what it 
does.

_______________________________________________________________
S H A K S P E R: The Global Shakespeare Discussion List
Hardy M. Cook, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The S H A K S P E R Web Site <http://www.shaksper.net>

DISCLAIMER: Although SHAKSPER is a moderated discussion list, the opinions 
expressed on it are the sole property of the poster, and the editor 
assumes no responsibility for them.

Subscribe to Our Feeds

Search

Make a Donation

Consider making a donation to support SHAKSPER.