2007

WashPost: Ourselves in Shakespeare

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 18.0571  Friday, 31 August 2007

From: 		Joseph Egert <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date: 		Saturday, 25 Aug 2007 13:09:18 -0700 (PDT)
Subject: 18.0543 WashPost: Ourselves in Shakespeare
Comment: 	Re: SHK 18.0543 WashPost: Ourselves in Shakespeare

John Drakakis, unclear as to what I mean by 'fact', asks how he would 
recognize it. The answer, which JD himself provides later in the "Gobbo" 
example, is simply to gather, weigh, and judge the available evidence, 
perhaps in conference with fellow jurors, then decide what most likely 
happened in fact.

Think of actual history as a reel of 3D film unspooling in time. Each 
cel then constitutes an objective universal permanent record of each 
instant. Different scholars may wish to study different parts of a given 
cel, or different segments of the reel over time (say, a particular year 
or decade), then reason together as to what probably occurred in fact. 
Naturally, like sand-blind Hindus examining different parts of the 
elephant, they bring their own interests, perceptions, and judgments to 
the process, all conditioned by society and history (There's that truism 
again.). The actual facts, while prior to and independent of their 
valuations, nonetheless form the basis for them.

Some may recognize that the "Gobbo" example and attendant quotes were 
taken directly from Dr D's own "Present Text" piece in PRESENTIST 
SHAKESPEARES---in the (vain?) hope JD would respond to the problems 
posed. Let's try one more time:

1. Does JD agree that past and present form one evolving continuum and 
therefore cannot be in overall "dialectical relation" to each other?

2. Must we wait to learn what name he would advise his fellow editor to 
use in the stage direction example, and why?

3. Does Dr D still believe "speculating about authorial intention" to be 
a "trap" or "guilty" endeavor? JD himself suggests he would accept which 
name to use, had he Shakespeare's own manuscript. Even here I'd argue: 
the fundamental question is not what he wrote but what he intended to 
write. We'd still have to try to construct a perfectly proofread 
manuscript from what was handed to us.

4. What then would Dr D choose as the model for his edition of a play 
"by William Shakespeare"? -- a perfectly proofread final draft? a 
perfectly proofread opening night script or promptbook?

5. Does Dr D truly believe all scholarship should be sieved through a 
"current social value" filter? I still don't know how John distinguishes 
between "progress" and "reaction". Does he agree with Cary DiPetro that 
"our priority must be to consider how and why these texts mean for us 
now"? Or is this more noncense?

Finally, I wish to thank Dr Drakakis for his valuable lesson in textual 
analysis both here at SHAKSPER and in "Present Text".

Regards,
Joe Egert

"When people stop believing in reason, they don't just believe in 
nothing---they believe in anything!" (Apostle of Darkness, 2007)

_______________________________________________________________
S H A K S P E R: The Global Shakespeare Discussion List
Hardy M. Cook, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The S H A K S P E R Web Site <http://www.shaksper.net>

DISCLAIMER: Although SHAKSPER is a moderated discussion list, the 
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Redheads

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 18.0570  Friday, 31 August 2007

[1] 	From: 		Bob Lapides <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
	Date: 		Thursday, 30 Aug 2007 10:59:54 EDT
	Subj: 		Re: SHK 18.0565 Redheads

[2] 	From: 		Robin Hamilton <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
	Date: 		Thursday, 30 Aug 2007 16:23:12 +0100
	Subj: 		Re: SHK 18.0565 Redheads

[3] 	From: 		Nicole Coonradt <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
	Date: 		Thursday, 30 Aug 2007 16:00:37 +0000
	Subj: 		Re: SHK 18.0565 Redheads

[4] 	From: 		Peter Bridgman <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
	Date: 		Thursday, 30 Aug 2007 18:29:07 +0100
	Subj: 		Re: SHK 18.0565 Redheads

[5] 	From: 		Stephanie Kydd <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
	Date: 		Thursday, 30 Aug 2007 12:00:35 -0700 (PDT)
	Subj: 		SHK 18.0565 Redheads


[1]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From: 		Bob Lapides <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date: 		Thursday, 30 Aug 2007 10:59:54 EDT
Subject: 18.0565 Redheads
Comment: 	Re: SHK 18.0565 Redheads

In reply to Nicole Coonradt: I know that Dickens, especially as a young 
man, saw every play he could. That was what he did most evenings. But I 
don't know which plays of that period had Jewish characters. (This is a 
very good question that possibly no one has tried to answer so far.)

I also know that among Dickens's early sketches (later collected in 
"Sketches by Boz") there is one describing unpleasant Jews with red 
hair.   It's also widely believed that Fagin was based on a real person, 
Ikey  Solomons, who had red hair. Jews in Georgian England were heavily 
involved in fencing stolen property and money-lending, and Dickens 
didn't like them as a group -- until 1860, late in his life, when he 
sold a house to a Jewish couple who surprised him with their decency.

Despite his personal bias, it does seem he based Fagin on stage 
conventions as well as on actual life.  Like Shakespeare, Dickens had 
the ability to absorb and retain almost everything he read and saw and 
then to let his imagination play with whatever he had stored away in his 
brain.

Bob Lapides
nyc

[2]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From: 		Robin Hamilton <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date: 		Thursday, 30 Aug 2007 16:23:12 +0100
Subject: 18.0565 Redheads
Comment: 	Re: SHK 18.0565 Redheads

From: David Basch <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>

 >16:12 ... Now [David] was ruddy, and withal of a beautiful
 >countenance, and goodly to look to. ...
 >
 >In case there is any doubt, the word "ruddy" in verse 12
 >means red.

Well, no, not quite -- the primary meaning given by the OED is *reddish 
-- not quite the same as the redness of hair.

1. a. Of the face, complexion, etc.: Naturally suffused with a fresh or 
healthy redness.

While the above passage could just barely be taken to apply to David's 
hair -- OED 2.a. In general use: Red or reddish -- there seems no reason 
to reject the obvious sense of  "ruddy faced", since "ruddy" is followed 
almost immediately by the word "countenance".

David may or may not have been red haired, but the passage above reveals 
nothing one way or the other with regard to this.

Robin Hamilton

[3]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From: 		Nicole Coonradt <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date: 		Thursday, 30 Aug 2007 16:00:37 +0000
Subject: 18.0565 Redheads
Comment: 	Re: SHK 18.0565 Redheads

RE David Basch's post on the use of "ruddy" in Samuel I.  Since when 
does "ruddy" mean red hair?  Ruddy, as far as I can tell, as common 
usage would dictate, is about one's complexion, and while a ginger could 
have a ruddy complexion, it's not a given or a necessity; non-gingers 
could have ruddy complexions as well.  Definitions indicate ruddy to 
mean more of a fresh, healthy glow to the skin-- like one coming in out 
of the cold.  Seems we see it often used in conjunction with this. 
Given that the young shepherd is called in from tending his flocks and 
the language following the use of ruddy is, in the very same sentence, 
about his "countenance" I'm not sure that assuming "ruddy" synonymous 
with "redhead" is at all safe here.  The MED links it to complexion as 
well and says nothing about red hair.

RE Larry Weiss' post "I find it interesting that no one has yet observed 
that Jesus is usually pictured as having red hair."  Would you be able 
to include some links to such images for us-- curious to see them.

Thanks,
Nicole Coonradt
University of Denver
Denver, CO  USA

[4]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From: 		Peter Bridgman <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date: 		Thursday, 30 Aug 2007 18:29:07 +0100
Subject: 18.0565 Redheads
Comment: 	Re: SHK 18.0565 Redheads

David Basch, quoting 1 Samuel 16:12, writes ...

 >In case there is any doubt, the word "ruddy" in verse 12 means red.

Yes, but the Hebrew word (admoniy) may mean ruddy-cheeked or red-haired, 
and the context here would surely suggest ruddy-cheeked.  The only 
reference to red hair in the Bible (Esau) thus remains a pejorative one.

Nicole Coonradt writes of ...

 >... the English Puritans who practiced usury and were actually called 
"Christian Jews".

My understanding was that Puritans were called this because of their 
strict (or "precise", e.g. Angelo in Measure for Measure) reading of 
scripture.

 >Despite their having been driven from the country in 1290 by
 >Edward I, there were, in fact, Jews in England.

Indeed.  WS lived for four years (1592-96) in the parish of St Helen's 
Bishopsgate.  Just outside the city walls at the top of Bishopsgate was 
a Sephardic Jewish quarter centred around Houndsditch (London's oldest 
synagogue still stands nearby).  WS would undoubtedly have met these 
shopkeepers and their families.

Furthermore, if the Dark Lady of the Sonnets was in fact Emilia Lanier 
(nee Bassano), as suggested by A.L. Rowse, then WS was more intimately 
linked to London's Jewish community.  Like Shylock, the Bassanos were 
Venetian Jews. I quote from Michael Wood's book (my source for the above 
as well) ...

"At least two of her [Emilia's] uncles also married Jewesses, and 
although they conformed as Catholics in Venice and Protestants in 
London, they retained a consciousness of their Jewishness. (This would 
not have been a bar at court - the queen herself had a Jewish 
lady-in-waiting.)  The Bassanio's forebears worked in silk: their coat 
of arms was a mulberry tree - morus in Latin, which also means 'Moor'."

... red hair (as with several of the Tudors/Stuarts) does show up more 
frequently in the British Isles than in some other places, but, 
interestingly, the current largest population is in the US where it is 
estimated between 2-6% of the total population.  Globally it is around 
1% today.  Wish we could know what it was in Early Modern times.

There's no reason to think it was any different from today.  Scotland 
has the highest percentage of red-haired people in the world (13%), 
closely followed by Ireland (10%).  The incidence is lower in England 
and Wales.  It may be significant to our discussion that when James I 
came to the throne in 1603 he brought down a lot of Scots with him.  The 
Scottish hangers-on at court were largely hated by Londoners.

In contrast, consider the preference of depicting the Madonna and Child 
as more fair than dark-- and often blond-- from the Middle Ages to the 
Renaissance.  The problem?  They were Jewish!  It is not often that they 
are depicted ethnically-correct as having dark skin, hair and eyes, 
which was likely the case.

I think you'll find that Italian artists painted the Madonna and Child 
as Italians, German artists painted them as Germans, Spanish as 
Spaniards, Greek as Greeks, etc.  In other words, there was no conscious 
effort on the part of artists to er, de-hebraicise (is there such a 
word?) the Holy Family.

Peter Bridgman

[5]-----------------------------------------------------------------
From: 		Stephanie Kydd <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date: 		Thursday, 30 Aug 2007 12:00:35 -0700 (PDT)
Subject: Redheads
Comment: 	SHK 18.0565 Redheads

Apparently, Englishmen have associated red hair with an evil temperament 
for a very long time.  The Oxford Dictionary of Superstitions has almost 
a full page of quotations under 'RED HAIR unlucky'.  The earliest of 
these is from the c. 1200 'Proverbs of Alfred': 'The rede mon he is a 
quet [wicked man]; for he wole the thin uvil red [will give thee evil 
counsel]'. Interestingly, no quotation specifically linking red hair 
with either Judas or Judaism appears until 1853, and that only cites 
'tradition' as its source: 'N & Q Ist ser. VII 616. In every part of 
England I have visited, there appears to be a deep-rooted prejudice... 
agains people with red hair... Tradition... assigns to Absalom's hair a 
reddish tinge; and Judas... is ever painted with locks  of the same 
unhappy colour'.

   - Stephie Kydd

_______________________________________________________________
S H A K S P E R: The Global Shakespeare Discussion List
Hardy M. Cook, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The S H A K S P E R Web Site <http://www.shaksper.net>

DISCLAIMER: Although SHAKSPER is a moderated discussion list, the 
opinions expressed on it are the sole property of the poster, and the 
editor assumes no responsibility for them.

Jaques

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 18.0568  Friday, 31 August 2007

From: 		Virginia Byrne <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date: 		Thursday, 30 Aug 2007 12:22:04 EDT
Subject: 	Jaques

I saw a rather lovely, streamlined, bare bones production of "As You 
Like It' last evening here on Cape Cod by a group from New Hampshire 
called 'Shakespeare in the Valley". It sent me to the script today to 
revisit it. Here's the question I pose. In the opening monologue, 
Orlando refers to his brother JAQUES who Oliver "keeps at school". . . 
just a coincidence that a JAQUES is with Duke Senior in the forest? Did 
Shakespeare simply run out of names? (he seems to certainly favor the 
name "Rosalind" in his writings).

Virginia Byrne

_______________________________________________________________
S H A K S P E R: The Global Shakespeare Discussion List
Hardy M. Cook, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The S H A K S P E R Web Site <http://www.shaksper.net>

DISCLAIMER: Although SHAKSPER is a moderated discussion list, the 
opinions expressed on it are the sole property of the poster, and the 
editor assumes no responsibility for them.

Branagh's _As You Like It_

The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 18.0569  Friday, 31 August 2007

From: 		Anna Kamaralli <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date: 		Thursday, 30 Aug 2007 15:54:34 +0100 (BST)
Subject: 18.0564 Branagh's _As You Like It_
Comment: 	Re: SHK 18.0564 Branagh's _As You Like It_

 >Its chief problem was Howard's Rosalind, who could easily have been
 >mistaken for Much Ado's Hero:  a sweet conventional girl, facing
 >problems not of her making, and in way over her head. In other words,
 >an every day ingenue.

 >That, apparently, is the Rosalind Branagh prefers. There's no trace in
 >his movie of the resourceful, intelligent, and brilliantly perceptive
 >young woman -- clear-eyed even in the throes of love -- who is the
 >central character of Shakespeare's play.

No wonder it didn't last with Emma Thompson...

_______________________________________________________________
S H A K S P E R: The Global Shakespeare Discussion List
Hardy M. Cook, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The S H A K S P E R Web Site <http://www.shaksper.net>

DISCLAIMER: Although SHAKSPER is a moderated discussion list, the 
opinions expressed on it are the sole property of the poster, and the 
editor assumes no responsibility for them.

Folger Shakespeare Library's 75th Anniversary

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The Shakespeare Conference: SHK 18.0567  Friday, 31 August 2007

From: 		Hardy M. Cook <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Date: 		Friday, August 31, 2007
Subject: 	Folger Shakespeare Library's 75th Anniversary Celebration

http://www.allamericanpatriots.com/48730798_arts_marketing_shakespeare_boydell_gallery_1789_1805_and_beyond

- On Exhibit September 20, 2007 through January 5, 2008

- Exhibition part of Folger Shakespeare Library's 75th Anniversary 
Celebration

August 28, 2007 -- Imagine a world in which there were no museums or art 
collections open to the public, no collections held by the nation. At 
the end of the eighteenth century in England, the only way to experience 
art was by invitation to view a private collection or by seeing a print 
engraved from the original. John Boydell (1719-1804), a prominent London 
print-dealer, publisher and politician, and his brother Josiah, changed 
that with the opening of their Shakespeare Gallery in 1789.

The Gallery, located at fashionable 52 Pall Mall, filled more than 4000 
feet of wall space with paintings of Shakespearean scenes by the leading 
artists of the day, among them Joshua Reynolds (then President of the 
Royal Academy), Angelica Kaufmann, Benjamin West, George Romney, and 
Henry Fuseli. This precursor to modern art museums even had a shop 
downstairs. It quickly became the place to be seen in Regency England. 
Fanny Burney the novelist turned up; so did Horace Walpole and many others.

Images from the Gallery were widely distributed, creating spin-offs and 
competitors. At the same time, Shakespeare's popularity on the stage 
with actors such as Sarah Siddons and John Philip Kemble generated a 
market for Shakespeare-themed knick-knacks, from jewelry and enameled 
boxes to figurines, Wedgwood containers, and even decorative tiles for 
the home.

Marketing Shakespeare: The Boydell Gallery (1789-1805), co-curated by 
Ann R. Hawkins of Texas Tech University and Folger Head of Reference 
Georgianna Ziegler, chronicles the development of the Shakspeare 
Gallery, both its growth and decline, and the part it played in a 
growing market for Shakespeare-related goods in the "Romantic" period. 
The exhibition is on view September 20, 2007 through January 5, 2008, 
Monday through Saturday, 10am - 5pm (please note new hours), at the 
Folger Shakespeare Library. Admission is free.

Drawing from the Folger's rich art collection, and featuring original 
works by Henry Fuseli, Caroline Watson, Francesco Bartolozzi, and 
William Blake, Marketing Shakespeare will display 100 items from the 
Gallery-original paintings, engravings, and documents-as well as 
cartoons and other reactions to it. The exhibition captures the Gallery, 
Boydell's most famous-and influential-endeavor, a venture that existed 
at the junction of book and canvas, and gives us a rare glimpse into 
popular tastes for Shakespeare at the turn of the eighteenth-century. 
Also on exhibit is a variety of decorative wares that were sold at the 
time, including porcelains and enamels of popular Shakespearean actors 
and actresses.

Interestingly, the Gallery was an after-thought, a marketing strategy to 
sell subscriptions to Boydell's "magnificent and accurate" National 
Edition of Shakespeare's plays. The unique illustrated edition featured 
custom engravings of Shakespearean scenes from paintings by the leading 
artists of the day. After the engraver finished making the plates, the 
paintings were returned to Boydell who then hit upon the idea of 
exhibiting them in a purpose-built gallery. Commissioning the paintings 
themselves was a bit of a scheme on the part of the Boydell brothers to 
encourage "history" painting in England and improve the national taste 
while also making money.

"We can learn something about popular tastes for Shakespeare from the 
growth of the gallery over time," says Hawkins. "When the Shakspeare 
Gallery opened in the fall of 1789, visitors could view thirty-four 
scenes from twenty-one plays. Of these thirty-four paintings, eight 
plays received multiple illustrations: The Merry Wives of Windsor (2), 
Richard III (3), A Midsummer Night's Dream (2), As You Like It (3), The 
Winter's Tale (3), King Lear (3), Much Ado about Nothing (3), and Romeo 
and Juliet(2)."

"By the opening of the 1790 exhibition," continues Hawkins, "ten of the 
remaining fifteen plays were represented, leaving only Julius Caesar, 
Othello, Coriolanus, Richard II, and Cymbeline without a painting. By 
1792, only Coriolanus and Julius Caesar remained without illustration, 
but paintings of these remaining plays did not appear until 1802. Though 
Boydell had only predicted providing two paintings for each play, when 
the Gallery closed, all plays had received at least two illustrations, 
and others had far more. As You Like It, for example, had been 
illustrated thirteen times, and The Merry Wives of Windsor, eight times."

Boydell's grand design ultimately involved donating his gallery and its 
contents to the nation, his gift to the country celebrating its national 
poet and creating its national art. But the Napoleonic wars doomed 
Boydell's project, wiping out the European markets he had hoped would 
purchase his prints. To settle his debts, Boydell organized a lottery to 
sell off the paintings, drawings, and Gallery. Boydell's engravings 
continued to illustrate editions of Shakespeare through the end of the 
nineteenth-century. The large engraved plates even had a second life in 
America, where they were repaired and reissued-again by 
subscription-across the country.

Though Boydell's gallery disappeared, the building that housed it became 
home next to the British Institution, which held its own exhibitions and 
which many credit as the forerunner to the British Museum. The 
alto-relievo of Shakespeare that once greeted visitors to the Gallery 
now stands in the garden of Nash's House on the site of Shakespeare's 
home, New Place, in Stratford-upon-Avon.

About the Curators

Ann R. Hawkins is an associate professor of English at Texas Tech 
University. She specializes in nineteenth-century British literature and 
book history and has published scholarly editions of three novels by 
Disraeli and the Countess of Blessington, as well as articles on 
nineteenth-century women poets, Lord Byron, and the British book trade. 
She is currently finishing a book on Shakespearean commodification in 
the Romantic era titled Byron and the Shakespeare Trade.

Georgianna Ziegler is Louis B. Thalheimer Head of Reference at the 
Folger where she has curated exhibitions on Shakespeare's Unruly Women 
and Queen Elizabeth I. She has published articles on Shakespeare in the 
nineteenth century and the Boydell Gallery, and is currently writing a 
book on Women and Shakespeare, 1790-1890.

Major exhibition support comes from the Winton and Carolyn Blount 
Exhibition Fund of the Folger Shakespeare Library.

RELATED PROGRAMS

October 17
Gallery Talk: Marketing Shakespeare: The Boydell Gallery (1789-1805) and 
Beyond
Curators offer Folger members a special insider's look at the current 
exhibit. Wednesday, 6pm. Members only; membership begins at $75. Call 
202.675.0359 to join.

October 17 - November 25
Folger Theatre: As You Like It by William Shakespeare
Subject of the most paintings in the Shakspeare Gallery, As You Like It 
creates a world of passionate possibility in the Forest of Arden for the 
banished Rosalind and Orlando as chance encounters blossom into love. 
Directed by Derek Goldman, with Sarah Marshall as Touchstone, Amanda 
Quaid as Rosalind, and Tonya Beckman Ross as Phoebe.

VISITOR SERVICES

Tours
Monday - Friday at 11am and Saturday at 11am and 1pm
Folger Docents offer guided tours of the exhibition, as well as the 
Folger's national landmark building, free of charge. No advance 
reservations required.

Group Tours
Docent-led tours of the exhibition, as well as the Folger national 
landmark building, are offered for groups of 10 or more. To arrange, 
please call (202) 675-0395.

Guide by Cell Audio Tours
Visitors, using their own cell phones, can call (202) 595-1844 and 
follow the prompts for 34# through 45# to hear the curators share 
insights into the exhibition. Available September 17, 2007.

Upcoming Folger Exhibitions

History in the Making: How Early Modern England Imagined Its Past
January 24, 2008 - May 17, 2008
Alan Stewart and Garrett Sullivan, Curators

The act of commemoration is at the heart of the study of Renaissance 
England-both in our tribute to that society and in that society's 
remembrance of its own past. Explore how the Tudor regime turned to 
rewritings of history to explain its right to the English throne and 
invented its own past and its own martyrs through history texts.

Folger Shakespeare Library is a world-class center for scholarship, 
learning, culture, and the arts. It is home to the world's largest 
Shakespeare collection and a primary repository for rare materials from 
the early modern period (1500-1750). Folger Shakespeare Library is an 
internationally recognized research library offering advanced scholarly 
programs in the humanities; an innovator in the preservation of rare 
materials; a national leader in how Shakespeare is taught in grades 
K-12; and an award-winning producer of cultural and arts programs - 
theater, music, poetry, exhibits, lectures, and family programs. By 
promoting understanding of Shakespeare and his world, Folger Shakespeare 
Library reminds us of the enduring influence of his works, the formative 
effects of the Renaissance on our own time, and the power of the written 
and spoken word. A gift to the American people from industrialist Henry 
Clay Folger, the Folger Shakespeare Library - located one block east of 
the U.S. Capitol - opened in 1932. Learn more at www.folger.edu

Folger Shakespeare Library
201 East Capitol Street, SE, one block from the U.S. Capitol
Washington, DC 20003

METRO: Union Station (red line) or Capitol South (orange / blue line)

Open Monday through Saturday, 10am - 5pm. Closed Sundays and federal 
holidays. Admission is free.

Daily Free Guided Tours of the exhibition and building by Folger 
Docents: 11am, Monday - Friday; 11am, 1 and 2pm Saturdays.

Source: Folger Shakespeare Library

_______________________________________________________________
S H A K S P E R: The Global Shakespeare Discussion List
Hardy M. Cook, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The S H A K S P E R Web Site <http://www.shaksper.net>

DISCLAIMER: Although SHAKSPER is a moderated discussion list, the 
opinions expressed on it are the sole property of the poster, and the 
editor assumes no responsibility for them.

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