Cook’s Tour of Internet Resources for Students and Scholars of the Early Modern Period
In June 2009, I retired on disability from university teaching. I immediately began thinking of how I might continue to make use of some of the scholarly and pedagogical materials and resources I have gathered and how I might share some of the things I have learned as well as to have an excuse to continue with these pursuits.
It occurred to me that I could write short monographs for SHAKSPER, a pursuit that would provide me tremendous pleasure, since writing has become my most pleasurable activity these days. I was looking for an outlet for sharing some of the Internet references and other materials I have gathered over the years for my teaching and for my scholarship as well as providing me the excuse to continue with my electronic-world-packrat ways and the resulting pleasure of the pursuit, the discover, and the examination of my findings.
As I compose this note, I am reminded of two activities from my past, activities that may be driving my desire to undertake this project.
When I was an undergraduate in the mid- to late-1960s, I recall that I used to budget approximately five days in the library every time I had to write a research paper for developing my working bibliography. I would take index cards, a half dozen sharpened pencils, and a bottle of aspirin and I would sit down at the index table with the blue-bound volumes of the PMLA bibliography. I would start with the earliest indexes from the first years of the twentieth-century as I recall and start turning pages slowing, carefully examining the entries for books and articles that might be relevant to my current project. Five days later with a raging headache, I would reach the unbound volumes of the 1960s and I was done. Now, I sit down at my computer with my Z39.50 Internet Compliant Bibliographic Management Software, EndNote, and in ten or fifteen minutes I will have performed a more comprehensive search than I thought possible when I was an undergraduate. I shall dedicate, at least, one upcoming Cook’s Tour to bibliographic management software.
After I completed my Ph.D., I participated in a N.E.H. Humanities Institute at the Folger Library on “Shakespeare and the History of Taste,” conducted by Professor Joseph G. Price of Pennsylvania State University. The Seminar was designed to explore the reception of Shakespeare’s works as well as to introduce to the participants the wealth of resources available for their use. One activity I undertook was to trace the reception of Sonnet 20, “A Womans face with natures owne hand painted,” the Master-Mistris sonnet. I began with a facsimile of the sonnet from Q1, the Aspley Imprint, at the Folger Library, and then with my trusty Radio Shack Tandy 100, first generation laptop computer, I was set out to transcribe the sonnet as it appeared in print, noting all changes. I next turned to the notorious 1640 edition of the Poems, published by Benson. I moved to Nicholas Rowe’s edition of 1709 published by Jacob Tonson. Rowe was Shakespeare’s first editor, but his six-volume edition does not contain the sonnets or the narrative poems, only the plays. In 1710, Edmund Curll published the poems in an unauthorized seventh edition, in a volume in the same style as Rowe’s six. My examination continued through the great eighteenth-century editions: Pope, Theobald, Hanmer, Warburton, Johnson, Capell, Steevens, Reed, and Malone. I loved working my way through the “modern” stacks, examining and studying these volumes.
Now, with the help of Terry Gray's Shakespeare's Works <http://shakespeare.palomar.edu/works.htm> and Shakespeare's Editors <http://shakespeare.palomar.edu/Editors/> pages and thanks to the Google Books Project, The Internet Archives, Microsoft, and others, I have a virtual library on my hard drive of photo-facsimiles of most of these great editions, subjects to be covered upcoming editions of this feature.
With Cook's Tours, I will share my knowledge of all things geekish as well as the rapidly increasing resources on the Internet that can be used in the pursuit of Shakespeare and Early Modern scholarship.
Hardy M. Cook
Editor of SHAKSPER
Cook’s Tour One: The Shakespeare Quartos Digital Image Collection/Archive
In 2008, Reuters reported that the British Library and the Folger Shakespeare Library were working together to make available online a free digital collection of quarto editions of Shakespeare's plays from their collections. The cost for scanning and uploading was funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities and the UK's Joint Information Systems Committee. Visitors are able to compare quartos from both collections side-by-side. This project joins and extends the capabilities of several already existing projects.
British Library’s Shakespeare Quartos
For example, the British Library's web site provides access to many of its "treasures" in high quality digital images: <http://www.bl.uk/treasures/treasuresinfull.html>. Currently, visitors can preview sample pages from the BL's manuscript of Mallory's Le Morte Darthur and will soon be able to examine the entire Winchester manuscript online. The first and the second edition of Caxton's Canterbury Tales, two copies of the Gutenberg Bible, a copy of the Magna Carta, and 253 digitized Renaissance festival books from the British Library's collection are also now available. Of greatest interest to Shakespeareans, however, are the 93 copies of 21 quartos of Shakespeare's plays that can be examined side-by-side in high quality digital images on the Internet: <http://molcat1.bl.uk/treasures/shakespeare/search.asp>.
You can view the British Library’s copies of Shakespeare quartos separately or you can compare any two copies.
If you choose to see one copy at a time, you will get two pages on the screen as you would if you had the book open in front of you. To read the text you may have to enlarge the image by clicking on it or using the enlarge icon.
There are 3 drop down lists for you to select the copy you want to view. Drop down list 1 gives you the 21 plays in alphabetical order of title. Not all of Shakespeare’s plays are included, because not all were published in quarto. Drop down list 2 gives you publication dates for quartos of the play selected. Drop down list 3 allows you to select a specific copy of the quarto edition selected. For a few plays, there is only one copy.
Go will take you to the first page of the play. Most of the quarto editions have no act or scene divisions. If you want to view a particular part of the play, leaf through until you find the section you want. There are links to the beginning of acts from the play summaries under Shakespeare quartos: <http://www.bl.uk/treasures/shakespeare/quartos.html>. Most of these link to the earliest quarto of each play.
There is also a comparison table: <http://molcat1.bl.uk/treasures/shakespeare/searchTable.asp?SortBy=Play> for all 93 quarto copies available on this website. This is in alphabetical order of title, but it can be sorted by quarto date, provenance, or shelfmark. Click on the play title to view a specific copy.
You can also compare the text of any two of the 93 copies. To do this, select a copy from the ‘View one copy’ drop down lists on the left hand search form above. Then select another copy from the ‘Compare with another text’ drop down lists on the right hand search form above. Even different copies of the same edition may not be exactly the same, because of the way the quartos were printed.
If you choose to compare two copies, you will see one page from each side-by-side. Go will take you to first page of each play. If you want to compare the same part of the text in two copies, you will have to leaf through both until you find the text you want.
Scholarly Uses for Online Images of Shakespeare’s Quartos
To illustrate the scholarly usefulness of having Internet accessibility to these early printings of Shakespeare, let me relate a story. A few years back, while I was working on my note, "Unnoticed Variant Reading in Q1 Lucrece, 1594," Eric Rasmussen asked me, if I would check some variants in the Folger Library's seven copies of Two Noble Kinsmen for the edition that he and G. R. Proudfoot were preparing for the Malone Society. I agreed since I live in the Washington, D.C., area and was then spending a lot of time at the Folger Library. I was rewarded with an acknowledgement in a note at the bottom of page viii. However, if the BL/Folger Library project had been operational, I probably would not have been asked (unless there were an issue with bleed through or a similar problem that would require examination of the actual page with a high powered magnifier). Eric Rasmussen (or one of his graduate students) could have checked the variant readings online without the need to have a researcher physically present at the Folger Library.
Those of us who work with so-called “rare” materials know of the time-consuming nature of the procedures to get an original quarto on one’s desk. After getting permission to use the research library and usually a second permission to certify one’s familiarity and competence with handling “rare books and manuscripts,” the researcher then has to locate the information in a card catalogue (one that uses printed cards containing the information describing the contents of the institution’s collection or that is an electronic catalogue - such as Hamnet at the Folger Library, <http://shakespeare.folger.edu/>). The researcher next fills out a form requesting the material. Sometimes, yet another librarian must grant yet another permission to use the material before the request is placed and someone goes to retrieve the material from a vault (in the Folger Library that vault is several stories underground) or another secure storage facility. At the British Library, it is advisable to place orders for “rare” materials days ahead of time, since BL “rare” books are normally stored at facilities miles away. In any case and in the best of circumstances, the time for getting a Shakespearean quarto for examination may take hours from the time one requests to the time one receives the “rare book.” Having access to the same material over the Internet has obvious advantages. In fact, now that so many “rare” materials are digitalized, many research libraries no long permit, except in the most unusual of circumstances, a researcher to handle Shakespearean quartos and folios.
At the forefront of digitalizing rare books and manuscripts is the Octavo company. Among it titles, Octavo sells electronic editions of Shakespeare’s Sonnets (British Library), The First Folio (Folger Shakespeare Library), and the 1640 Benson edition of The Poems (Warnock Library). But these three editions are only the start. I learned a few months ago from Terry Gray (“Mr. William Shakespeare and the Internet”) about “The Rare Book Room” - <http://www.rarebookroom.org/>. The home page to this site reads as follows: “The ‘Rare Book Room’ site has been constructed as an educational site intended to allow the visitor to examine and read some of the great books of the world. / Over the last ten years, a company called “Octavo” embarked on digitally photographing some of the world’s great books from some of the greatest libraries. These books were photographed at very high resolution (in some cases at over 200 megabytes per page). / This site contains all of the books (about 400) that have been digitized to date. These range over a wide variety of topics and rarity. The books are presented so that the viewer can examine all the pages in medium to medium-high resolution.”
The site includes books by Galileo, Newton, Copernicus, Kepler, Einstein, Darwin, and others. But for our purposes, “The Rare Book Room” collection’s Shakespeare section is stunning: it “contains most of the Shakespeare Quartos from the British Library, the Bodleian Library, the University of Edinburgh Library, and the National Library of Scotland. It also contains a First Folio from the Folger Shakespeare Library as well as the Folger Library’s unique copy of Q1 Titus Andronicus, its copy of Edmund Spenser’s The Shepheardes Calender (1579), and the Lambarde manuscript of The Womans Prize (Subtitled the Tamer Tamed, John Fletcher’s Jacobean answer to The Taming of the Shrew in which Petruchio, the tamer, is tamed). As far as the quartos of the plays go, “The Rare Book Room” collection with the addition of the Folger Library’s quartos, with which I began this piece, will be about as much as the textual scholar or teacher could ask for. Terry Gray in a private correspondence to me wrote, “It seems to me the availability of these materials should provoke a revolution in textual studies now that a much wider community of students have access to the primary documents.”
Among all these riches, I have yet one more site of interest to textual scholars. It is a work in progress but nevertheless a work that deserves to be mentioned and known: Terry Gray’s “Shakespeare’s Editors” from his “Mr. William Shakespeare and the Internet”: <http://shakespeare.palomar.edu/Editors/>. Gray explains to me that he had hoped to put together brief and useful pages but that the project took on a life of its own. On these pages, Gray provides succinct discussions of the editors of Shakespeare’s texts from Heminges and Condell and the seventeenth century adaptations, to the great eighteen-century editors (Rowe, Pope, Theobald, Hanmer, Warburton, Johnson, Capell, Steevens, Reed, and Malone), through the nineteenth century (with the Cambridge/Globe Shakespeare) up to Sidney Lee and beyond. In addition to the discussions of the editors and their editions, Terry, using Google Books, began including links to facsimiles of the various editions, that way madness lay. The result is another wonderful contribution to textual resources available on the Internet. Once again, the Shakespeare’s Editors project is a work in progress. This year Terry has been concentrating on the blog component of his “Mr. William Shakespeare and the Internet” site: <http://mrshakespeare.typepad.com>. If readers of SHAKSPER were not aware of “Mr. William Shakespeare and the Internet: the blog,” I encourage you to examine it and subscribe as I have. April 18th will be the first anniversary of this valuable blog and join me in congratulating Terry on yet another significant achievement in Shakespeare studies. Returning for a moment to “Shakespeare’s Editors,” Terry has relied heavily upon Google Books to find facsimile editions. He has had problems locating a number of multivolume editions and welcomes emails from anyone who comes across a link that he had not found as of yet. Finally, Terry wanted me to note that the Works page will soon be split out by play (and work, for the non-dramatic poetry), with an overview, sources, date, synopsis, available editions, criticism, and so on as his time permits.
The Folger Shakespeare Library’s Digital Image Collection
The Folger's Digital Image Collection offers online access to over 40,000 images from the Folger Shakespeare Library collection, including books, theater memorabilia, manuscripts, art, and more. Images are available in high resolution and users can show multiple images side-by-side, zoom in and out to see fine detail, view cataloging information when available, export thumbnails, and construct permanent URLs linking back to their favorite items or searches.
Through the Digital Image Collection, you can:
Compare 19th-century productions of Shakespeare with today's through historic photographs and promptbooks
Look at letters written by Queen Elizabeth I
Examine rare paintings in "up close and personal" detail
Read diary entries from over 200 years ago
and much more
Folger's Digital Image Collection is made available with Luna Insight®, a software toolset for accessing web-based digital image collections. The Insight software and Digital Image Collection hosted on servers at the Folger Shakespeare Library are now available for use by the general public.
There are two ways to explore our Digital Image Collection.
Use Your Web Browser
You may use your web browser that provides access to the collection through a convenient interface called LUNA. Copy and paste this LUNA URL into your favorite web browser, or just click on the link:
Install the Luna Insight Java Client on Your PC or Mac
You can install a free program called Insight® Java Client which provides features like access to our digitized Shakespeare Quartos collection and the ability to export sets of images with accompanying descriptions to Powerpoint or Keystone.
Click Features for details about the program, and a link to instructions on how to download and install.
To begin, open browser at Folger Shakespeare Library: http://www.folger.edu/
Select “Use the Collection” (Slightly to the left of the Middle of the home page:
Select Digital Image Collection from list of choices to the left (a table of contents for “Use the Collection”).
The first choice below Digital Image Collection Access the Digital Collection is a section explaining Accessing Digital Images where you learn that "There are two ways to explore our Digital Image Collection." If you plan extensively to explore the resources, I would suggest that you download the Luna Insight program. If you will only be taking a short visit or two, then follow the directions for accessing the resources with your web browser.
To Use Your Web Browser
You may use your web browser (be sure to turn off popup blockers), which provides access to the collection through an interface called Browser Insight(r) that is convenient, but limited in features.
Copy and paste this Browser Insight URL into your favorite web browser, or just click on the link:
Remember to turn off pop-up blockers!
To Explore Collection with Luna Insight (*The second best thing to be at the library and getting all of the necessary permissions to handle these rare materials -- not to trying to find a parking space on Capitol Hill.)
Instructions for Installing or Upgrading Luna Insight(r) Software on Your PC or Mac:
If you would like to download a pdf file with the following Instructions for installing/upgrading Luna Insight Software Click Here:
1. Luna Go to Luna Imaging <http://www.luna-imaging.com/>
2. Click Support at the upper right
3. Click Downloads
4. Select Download Now next to Insight v6.3 (20)
5. Select Download from the Insight v6.3 + LUNA box
6. Under Insight (with no other wording), select your operating system
7. If you have a choice to download / save file or open file: I recommend you choose download / save file
8. An Install Insight icon appears on the desktop. Double click on the icon
9. If a Security Warning appears, click Run
10. Choose the Advanced option when it appears
11. Watch for the message Specify the URL / address for your organization's Insight User Manager
12. Change the User Manager Address to luna.folger.edu
13. When prompted, select No, you are not upgrading (even if you are)
14. In Windows, a shortcut should install in a Luna Imaging folder in the All Programs menu in your Start menu. Otherwise you can go to C:\Program Files\LunaImaging\Insight 6.0 and find the application file Insight 6.0.
15. On a Mac, Luna Imaging is in the applications folder. The application file is Insight 6.0
16. Log in using username guest & password guest
If you are upgrading from a previous version of Luna follow the directions online.
SOME USEFUL FILES (can be found next to instructions at the Folger site -- I encourage you to download them and print them out for reference):
Grant for Shakespeare Quartos
NEH Final Report Shakespeare Quartos Archive
Using the Shakespeare Quartos Archive
Advanced Features of the Shakespeare Quartos Archive
Folger Digital Image Collection
Luna Software Overview
Instructions for Installing or Upgrading Luna Insight(r) Software
Luna How Tos
Quick Search Tips for Folger Digital Collection
Folger Shakespeare Library: http://www.folger.edu/
Hamnet, The Folger Shakespeare Library’s Online Catalog: http://shakespeare.folger.edu/
Digital Image Collection: http://www.folger.edu/Content/Collection/Digital-Image-Collection/
Browse Online Folger Shakespeare Library’s Online Collections: http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet
Insight Support: Documentation for Luna: http://www.lunaimaging.com/support/documentation.html
LUNA Flash Tutorials: http://www.lunaimaging.com/support/flashtutorials.html
Take a Virtual Tour of the Folger Shakespeare Library: http://www.folger.edu/Content/About-Us/Building-and-Grounds/
To download a pdf version of this Tour click here: Cook Tour One
Cook’s_Tour_2: The Book of Common Prayer (Sarum Missal, 1459, 1552, 1559)
Compiled by Hardy M. Cook, Editor of SHAKSPER
Perhaps, the best site on the Internet for locating resources associated with the three Early Modern Period editions of the Book of Common Prayer (1549, 1553, and 1559 as well as the pre-Reformation Sarum Missal) is sponsored by The Society Of Archbishop Justus. I strive to put the origins of the Book of Common Prayer into historical context, acknowledging from the onset that what follows is heavily influenced by traditional Anglican historiography. No matter how careful an author tries to be, there is always a danger when discussing anything related to politics or religion of stirring up deeply held passions. I assure my readers that I aim here above all else to disseminate information.
The Anglican Church considers itself to be both catholic (that is, orthodox) and reformed. This particular identify was established during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I and is retained to this day. “It resulted in a Church that consciously retained a large amount of continuity with the Church of the Patristic and Medieval periods in terms of its use of the catholic creeds, its pattern of ministry, its buildings and aspects of its liturgy, but which also embodied Protestant insights in its theology and in the overall shape of its liturgical practice” <http://www.cofe.anglican.org/about/history/>. Late seventeenth-century divine Richard Hooker best expressed the Anglican Church’s via media orientation in his monumental work of Anglican theology Of the Lawes of Ecclesiasticall Politie, which defends the Church of England from attacks from both Roman Catholicism and Puritanism and affirms the Anglican tradition as a “threefold cord not quickly broken” – Bible, church (that is, tradition), and reason.
Since the introduction of Christianity to the Roman province of Britain at the time of the Roman Empire, the Church of England (Ecclesia Anglicana), as defined by local synods such as the Synod of Whitby in 664, claims a distinct identity of its own separate from the other orthodox branches of Christianity. “The History of the Church of England” article at the official Church of England website maintains that “What eventually became known as the Church of England was the result of a combination of three streams of Christianity, the Roman tradition of St. Augustine [of Canterbury who landed in Kent to begin the work of converting the ‘pagan’ Angles, Saxons, and Jutes] and his successors, the remnants of the old Romano-British church [with St. Alban’s being the first member known by name] and the Celtic tradition [associated with the evangelizing figures of St. Illtud in Wales, St. Ninian in Scotland, and St. Patrick in Ireland] coming down from Scotland and [further] associated with people like St. Aidan and St. Cuthbert” <http://www.cofe.anglican.org/about/history/>.
During the reign of Henry VIII, the Church of England (Anglicana Ecclesia) with the Act of Supremacy of 1534 formerly separated from the Roman Catholic Church, a separation that was re-affirmed during the reign of Elizabeth I by the Second Act of Supremacy of 1559.
Previously, Henry VII (Henry Tudor) established the Tudor dynasty by overthrowing Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field, ending the long dynastic struggle, The War of the Roses. To secure further his hold on the throne, Henry VII, last of the Lancastrians, married Elizabeth of York, last of the Yorkists.
For obvious geo-political reasons, Henry VII married his heir, Prince Arthur, to Catherine of Aragon (the youngest surviving child of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain), first by proxy and then in person in November 1501; however, in April 1502 Arthur died. Henry VII, in part, fearing the loss of Catherine’s substantial dowry, quickly arranged a marriage of Catherine to his son Henry, who was then twelve. However, because of Biblical prohibitions (Leviticus 20:21), canon law required that a dispensation from the Pope be obtained. In 1503, the papal dispensation was granted. In April 1509, Henry VIII succeeded to the throne and married Catherine in June. Catherine gave birth to six children between 1510 and 1518; all but Mary, however, were either stillborn or died in infancy.
At this point, the narrative is less clear. In 1521, Henry worked on a refutation of Martin Luther’s De captivitate Babylonica published as Assertio septem sacramentorum (The Defence of the Seven Sacraments), in which he is identified as the Defence’s sole author. In return, the Pope awarded Henry VIII the title “Defender of the Faith” (Fidei Defensor). In 1527, Henry VIII requested an annulment of his marriage to Catherine for what, from his point of view, was a fruitless marriage resulting from his having married his brother’s widow, the reason for which his father initially sought and was granted a papal dispensation. Catherine, in return, appealed to Pope Clement, contending her marriage to Arthur was never consummated and thus invalid. Working against Henry VIII’s being granted this request was the annulment he had already received and the Pope’s fear of Catherine’s nephew, Charles V, King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor.
The extreme Anglican position maintains that “the annulment of the marriage of King Henry VIII to Catherine of Aragon” was “merely the occasion, but not the cause, of [the] break with Rome,” a break, from this perspective, that recovered the autonomy the Church of England had enjoyed prior to the Norman Conquest.
During Henry VIII’s reign, the English Church was not radically altered. Although Henry supported Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury’s ordering the Lord’s Prayer, the Ten Commandments, the Apostles’ Creed, and the Bible readings be in English, the Mass continued to be said in Latin. During Henry VIII’s lifetime what was practiced was Catholicism without the Pope.
Elements of Protestant Reformation took stronger hold upon the doctrines and practices of the Church of England during the brief reign of Henry VIII’s son Edward VI. “In the reign of Henry’s son Edward VI the Church of England underwent further reformation, driven by the conviction that the theology being developed by the theologians of the Protestant Reformation was more faithful to the teaching of the Bible and the Early Church than the teaching of those who continued to support the Pope.” In 1549, Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley produced the First Prayer Book (Book of Common Prayer), a simplified version of the Roman Catholic liturgical books in the vernacular. To the extreme Reformers, the First Prayer Book did not go far enough to transform the rites of the English Church; consequently, in 1552, Cranmer produced the Second Prayer Book of Edward VI, which radically differed from its predecessor; “The structure of the Holy Communion service was changed, many ceremonies were eliminated, and the vestments worn by the clergy were simplified.” However, eight months later, Edward died, and his Roman Catholic half-sister Mary I rolled back the changes made during his and their father’s reigns, restoring the Old Faith and with it the Latin liturgical services and missals. Mary died in 1558. Under her half-sister Elizabeth I, the 1552 Prayer Book was restored in 1559 with a few significant changes: the 1559 Book of Common Prayer allowed for belief in the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist and removed from the litany an offensive prayer against the Pope.
The most comprehensive site on the Internet that I have found with information on the 1549, 1552, and 1559 Books of Common Prayer is the work of Charles Wohlers at a site sponsored by The Society of Archbishop Justus.
The Society of Archbishop Justus was formed in 1996 and incorporated in 1997 as a nonprofit corporation in the State of New York for the purpose of using the Internet to foster and further unity among Christians, especially Anglicans <http://justus.anglican.org/soaj.html>.
Saint Justus (d. 627), fourth Archbishop of Canterbury, was sent in 601 from Rome by Pope Gregory along with Laurentius, Mellitus, and others to reinforce the Kentish mission. In 604 he was consecrated first bishop of the Diocese of Rochester by Augustine, and 28 April received from Æthelbert, king of Kent, a grant to his church of certain lands lying about Rochester. As a portion of these lands has always borne the name of Priestfield, it has been suggested that it is possible that Justus was not a monk (though this would of course be contrary to the belief of the Canterbury historians).
Justus helped Augustine in his ecclesiastical government (S Bonifacii Epistolæ, i. 104, 168), and after Augustine's death joined Archbishop Laurentius and Mellitus in writing to the Scottish bishops and abbots to urge them to conform to the Roman usages. On the relapse into idolatry that followed the accession of Eadbald in Kent, he fled with Mellitus into Gaul in 617, and remained there a year, until he was recalled to his bishopric by the king. He governed his diocese diligently, and received a letter of exhortation addressed to him and Archbishop Mellitus by Boniface V, who became Pope in 619.
On the death of Mellitus on 24 April 624, he succeeded to the See of Canterbury, and received a pall from Boniface with a letter referring to the gift as conveying the right of consecrating bishops; so it was probably after receiving it, though in the same year as his accession, that he consecrated Romanus to succeed him at Rochester. Another letter from Boniface to Justus giving the primacy of the whole English church to Canterbury (Gesta Pontificum, p. 47) is probably spurious. On 21 July 625, Justus consecrated Paulinus bishop, to accompany Æthelburh to Northumbria. One or two further details given by Elmham can scarcely be considered historical. There are lives of Justus by Gervase, and by Goscelin, in manuscript in the Lambeth Library. None of them adds anything to Bede's account. Justus died on 10 Nov 627, and was buried in St. Peter's porch at St. Augustine's, Canterbury <http://justus.anglican.org/justus-bio.html>.
Among the Computer Services Offered by the Society of Archbishop Justus <http://justus.anglican.org/> one can find a section of “Anglican Communion primary source materials or reference documents,” a collection of primary source materials <http://justus.anglican.org/resources/> and among this collection one finds The Book of Common Prayer collection <http://justus.anglican.org/resources/bcp/index.html>.
The Book of Common Prayer Collection
The resources of most interest to those involved in the study of the Early Modern Period that can be found among these pages are organized under the following rubrics:
The Sarum Missal: The Communion service commonly used in the English Church before the Book of Common Prayer; in Latin and English. <http://justus.anglican.org/resources/bcp/Sarum/index.htm>
Exhortation & Litany (1544):
The first liturgy in English <http://justus.anglican.org/resources/bcp/Litany1544/Exhortation&Litany_1544.htm>
The Order for the Communion 1548:
The first communion service in English. <http://justus.anglican.org/resources/bcp/Communion_1548.htm>
1549 Book of Common Prayer:
The first Book of Common Prayer <http://justus.anglican.org/resources/bcp/1549/BCP_1549.htm>
1552 Book of Common Prayer
: The second Prayer Book of Edward VI <http://justus.anglican.org/resources/bcp/1552/BCP_1552.htm>
1559 Book of Common Prayer
: The Elizabethan Book <http://justus.anglican.org/resources/bcp/1552/BCP_1552.htm>
This Tour originally appeared on Friday, 6 March 2009 as digest SHK 20.0096.
To download a pdf version of this Tour click here: Cooks Tour Two